Deformation of metavolcanics in the Karachay Lake area, Southern Urals: petrophysical and mineral—chemical aspects
V. A. Petrov, V. V. Poluektov, A. V. Zharikov, V. I. Velichkin, R. M. Nasimov, N. I. Diaur, V. A. Terentiev, V. M. Shmonov, V. M. Vitovtova, 2005. "Deformation of metavolcanics in the Karachay Lake area, Southern Urals: petrophysical and mineral—chemical aspects", Petrophysical Properties of Crystalline Rocks, P. K. Harvey, T. S. Brewer, P. A. Pezard, V. A. Petrov
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This paper is the result of laboratory tests aimed at comparative assessment of the filtration, elastic and mechanical properties of metavolcanics, as well as a preliminary investigation of the nature of characteristic variations in P-T parameters, simulating the conditions in the vicinity of an underground storage facility for heat-generating radioactive waste. The properties have been studied in cores collected from the deepest (1200 m) hole in the metavolcanics, focusing on intervals subjected to different strain intensities. Interpretation of the data obtained suggests that the identification of the most probable pathways for fluid flow and radionuclide transport depends on estimates of the retardation characteristics of zones of disjunctive dislocation. However, the widespread occurrence of linear zones of schistosity, mylonitization and brecciation may not be a decisive negative factor in the long-term performance assessment of the underground storage facility, because these minerals, which concentrate radionuclides such as epidote, chlorite, sericite, and Fe oxyhydroxides are widely distributed in these zones. Moreover, open microfractures and pores affected by heat will be filled with neoformed minerals (epidote, chlorite, carbonate) characterized by high sorption capacity with respect to radionuclides, due to release of intergranular water, as well as carbonatization reactions. Simultaneously, the system of open macro- and microfractures that resulted from stress affecting relatively undisturbed blocks may be one of the factors dramatically reducing country rock retention capability. Therefore, the results of petrophysical and mineral-chemical investigations must be taken into account in feasibility studies of designs for the construction of underground systems for final disposal of high-level wastes and/or long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel in the PA Mayak area.
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Boreholes are commonly drilled into crystalline rocks to evaluate their suitability for various applications such as waste disposal (including nuclear waste), geothermal energy, hydrology, sequestration of greenhouse gases and for fault analysis. Crystalline rocks include igneous, metamorphic and even some sedimentary rocks. The quantification and understanding of individual rock masses requires extensive modelling and an analysis of various physical and chemical parameters. This volume covers the following aspects of the petrophysical properties of crystalline rocks: fracturing and deformation, oceanic basement studies, permeability and hydrology, and laboratorybased studies. With the growing demands for sustainable and environmentally effective development of the subsurface, the petrophysics of crystalline rocks is becoming an increasingly important field.