Effect of compositional variations on log responses of igneous and metamorphic rocks. II: acid and intermediate rocks
R. Pechnig, H. Delius, A. Bartetzko, 2005. "Effect of compositional variations on log responses of igneous and metamorphic rocks. II: acid and intermediate rocks", Petrophysical Properties of Crystalline Rocks, P. K. Harvey, T. S. Brewer, P. A. Pezard, V. A. Petrov
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An extensive data-set of petrophysical down-hole measurements exists for boreholes drilled into continental crystalline crust. We selected boreholes covering a range of different types of plutonic rocks and gneisses in amphibolite or high-grade metamorphic rocks. According to Serra's concept of electrofacies, a specific set of log responses should characterize one rock type. Here, we concentrate on the detection of compositional variations between rock types. Bulk composition of the protoliths influences the mineralogical composition of the metamorphic rock, and we demonstrate how this impacts on the down-hole measurements. Integration of logging data with geochemical core data and mineralogical descriptions allows the calibration of the log responses to rock types. The relationship of the log responses with core data shows a remarkably good correlation, and diagnostic trends are detected. From the logs, potassium and neutron porosity are particularly helpful in distinguishing different types of gneisses and igneous rocks with respect to their protoliths. The proportions of amphibole/pyroxene, mica + K-feldspar and feldspar + quartz in the rocks seem to control the direction of correlation in a cross-plot, i.e. positive or negative, depending on increasing or decreasing mineral proportions. This is true for all boreholes, and a generalized classification scheme could be developed for these crystalline rocks.
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Petrophysical Properties of Crystalline Rocks
Boreholes are commonly drilled into crystalline rocks to evaluate their suitability for various applications such as waste disposal (including nuclear waste), geothermal energy, hydrology, sequestration of greenhouse gases and for fault analysis. Crystalline rocks include igneous, metamorphic and even some sedimentary rocks. The quantification and understanding of individual rock masses requires extensive modelling and an analysis of various physical and chemical parameters. This volume covers the following aspects of the petrophysical properties of crystalline rocks: fracturing and deformation, oceanic basement studies, permeability and hydrology, and laboratorybased studies. With the growing demands for sustainable and environmentally effective development of the subsurface, the petrophysics of crystalline rocks is becoming an increasingly important field.