Glacier–permafrost hydrological interconnectivity: Stagnation Glacier, Bylot Island, Canada
The complex thermal structure in areas where polythermal glaciers and continuous permafrost are present increases the potential for direct linkages between subsurface water conduits within glaciers and permafrost. In this study, hydrologic features of a glacier and the surrounding ice-cored moraines were examined and the potential for englacial water to flow out of the glacier and into the moraine was investigated. Ground-penetrating radar investigations, dye trace tests and direct observations of hydrological features (e.g., moulins, springs and caves) on and around Stagnation Glacier on Bylot Island, Arctic Canada, were undertaken. Data reveal that englacial conduits extend from the glacier into the adjacent ice-cored moraine. Glacial meltwater may have experienced variable flow conditions over the last 10 years and the conduit closures have occurred over a much longer time period. The study illustrates the interconnectivity of the glacial and permafrost hydrological systems.