Glaciers and Permafrost
The interaction between glaciers and permafrost was long ago addressed for glaciers in Arctic regions. Analogies from modern environments have been used to understand landform development at the margins of Pleistocene ice sheets. During more recent decades many systematic measurements of permafrost in boreholes, geophysical soundings and temperature monitoring have revealed permafrost to be more abundant in many more high-mountain areas than previously thought. This suggests that permafrost may be a governing factor not only for periglacial landform evolution in these areas, but also, given the potential for glacier-permafrost interaction, for glacial landform generation. This paper presents and discusses observation and study results on the geomorphological significance of the interrelationship between glaciers and permafrost, in relation to geomorphological processes, landform generation and response of the system to climate fluctuations.