Reservoir geology of the Utsira Formation at the first industrial-scale underground CO2 storage site (Sleipner area, North Sea)
Peter Zweigel, Rob Arts, Ane E. Lothe, Erik B. G. Lindeberg, 2004. "Reservoir geology of the Utsira Formation at the first industrial-scale underground CO2 storage site (Sleipner area, North Sea)", Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, Shelagh J. Baines, Richard H. Worden
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At the Sleipner fields in the North Sea, CO2 is being injected into sands of the Miocene-Pliocene Utsira Formation, which is overlain by thick Pliocene shales. The highly porous (35%–40%) and extremely permeable (approximately 2 D) Utsira sands are organized into approximately 30 m thick packages. These packages are separated by thin (predominantly 1 m thick), low-permeability shale layers, which are assumed to contain potential fluid pathways of erosive or deformational origin. A 6.5 m thick shale layer close to the top of the sands separates an eastward thickening sand wedge from the main sand package below. Migration simulations indicate that the migration pattern of CO2 below the shale layer would differ strongly from that within the sand wedge above. Time-lapse seismic data acquired prior to the start, and after three years, of injection confirmed a reservoir model based on these findings and showed that the thin shale layers act as temporary barriers and that the 6.5 m thick shale layer does not fully inhibit upward migration of CO2.