From a humble background in the mining communities of Tyne and Wear, with little academic education, Robert Stephenson followed in the footsteps of his father, George, and became one of the foremost civil and mechanical engineers of the early 19th Century. While he is primarily associated with railways, Robert Stephenson had considerable dealings with groundwater during his professional life, applying a rational, empirical approach that would be familiar to modern practitioners. Stephenson’s approach to groundwater issues was probably shaped largely by the years spent battling water-bearing quicksands during construction of the Kilsby Tunnel near Rugby on the London to Birmingham Railway. Careful observations allowed him to conclude that local drainage by use of arrays of wells was possible, without the need to drain the whole aquifer body. Later in his career he advised on public water supplies from the Chalk for London and the Sherwood Sandstone for Liverpool. His careful observations and reasoned interpretation, allowed him to advance the concept of a ‘cone of influence’ around a pumped well and to develop tests and monitoring programmes to assess the impact of new abstractions on existing water features. Today, his work may seem basic, even obvious, but, in the days before the work of Darcy and Dupuit, there were many who disputed his findings. Stephenson preferred to let the facts to speak for themselves, but where this was not possible he vigorously publicised the benefit of applying a scientific approach to the management and control of groundwater.
Figures & Tables
The collection of papers in this volume records the development of hydrogeology in Britain over the last 200 years. Following the application, by William smith, of stratigraphic principles to the sinking of wells, Victorian engineers and scientists established groundwater as a major contributor to public water supplies. In the twentieth century, the development of groundwater continued rapidly, controlled by an ever-changing regulatory regime. The 25 papers in this volume review the progrss which has been made, and the lives and work of some of those who were intimately involved.