Reservoir modelling of the Hamitabat Field, Thrace Basin, Turkey: an example of a sand-rich turbidite system
D. M. Conybeare, S. Cannon, O. Karaoğuz, E. Uygur, 2004. "Reservoir modelling of the Hamitabat Field, Thrace Basin, Turkey: an example of a sand-rich turbidite system", Confined Turbidite Systems, S. A. Lomas, P. Joseph
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The inter-montane, fault bounded Thrace Basin of northwestern Turkey is one of the largest Tertiary sedimentary basins in Turkey. Tertiary sedimentation within the basin comprises interbedded fine- to coarse-grained clastics from a variety of depositional environments, muddy carbonates with local reef developments, and tuff horizons. A thick pile of Quaternary alluvial deposits overlies this marine-dominated succession. Accommodation space, and hence sedimentation, has been influenced by the structural history of the basin, reflecting the active compressional setting adjacent to the North Anatolian Fault System. The Hamitabat Field, located towards the northern basin margin, is the largest developed gas field in the Thrace Basin. The trapping mechanism is by an anticlinal structure bounded to the north by a northwest-southeast striking reverse fault and to the south by a set of antithetic normal faults with a general east-west strike orientation. The main reservoir is the middle to upper Eocene Hamitabat Formation, comprising sandstones deposited by episodic gravity flow events in a shallow marine shelf to slope environment, with sediment sourced from fluvial/deltaic systems to the north and northeast. Correlation, based mainly on upward-fining cyclical successions, indicates lobate depositional geometries and topographic control on sediment dispersal (compensation). Progradational shallow marine sandstones, which infill earlier topography, overlie the turbidite succession. A three-dimensional geocellular reservoir model of the field, based on well and seismic data, has been constructed. The model has been subdivided on the basis of the stratigraphical correlation and populated with facies objects with dimensions based on analogue data. These facies have then been populated with petrophysical parameters. The model has been upscaled and simulated fluid flow through the modelled volume has been compared with the production history. This history matching provides an opportunity to assess and refine the model and to determine a strategy for future field development.
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This publication reflects a growing appreciation of the extent to which turbidite depositional system development is fundamentally affected by basin-floor topography. In the many turbidite and turbidite hydrocarbon reservoirs, depositional patterns have been moderately to strongly confined by pre-existing slopes; thus ‘submarine fans’ may be far from fan-shaped where constrained by significant bathymetric features. This volume examines aspects of sediment dispersal and accumulation in deep-water systems where sea-floor topography has exerted a decisive control on deposition, and explores the associated controls on hydrocarbon reservoir architecture and heterogeneity.
The papers presented here offer a global perspective, which is wide-ranging in terms of approach as well as location, including contrasting reviews and case studies of outcrop, subsurface, modern and experimental systems. This book will be of use both to academic geologists and to geoscience professionals in industry dealing with characterization and modelling of deep-water clastic reservoirs.