Sand-rich turbidite system of the Late Oligocene Northern Apennines foredeep: physical stratigraphy and architecture of the ‘Macigno costiero’ (coastal Tuscany, Italy)
Gianluca Cornamusini, 2004. "Sand-rich turbidite system of the Late Oligocene Northern Apennines foredeep: physical stratigraphy and architecture of the ‘Macigno costiero’ (coastal Tuscany, Italy)", Confined Turbidite Systems, S. A. Lomas, P. Joseph
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The ‘Macigno costiero’ turbidite system characterized the oldest foredeep clastic wedge of the Northern Apennines during the Late Oligocene collisional phase. The cropping-out thickness is about 500 m. The features of the ‘Macigno costiero’ indicate a sand-rich, low-efficiency turbidite system. The system developed within a partially confined basin, which was part of a complex foredeep system. The stacking pattern of the turbidite system was determined through the analysis of facies and physical stratigraphy. It consists of a succession organized in sedimentary units, which are characterized by particular associations of facies linked to distinct depositional environments. Several architectural elements are seen: (1) unchannelized and channelized lobes; (2) distributary channels with channel-fill, overbank and channel-margin deposits; (3) main channel with channel-fill, channel-margin and interchannel deposits. Five turbidite stages were identified. From the bottom up they consist of four lobe stages and one proximal channel stage. The lobe stages are characterized by thickening-coarsening upward trends, from distal lobes to proximal lobes up to the channel-lobe transition zone. The uppermost, fifth stage is linked to a main channel complex with stacked channel-fill, channel-margin and interchannel deposits. This final stage also marks the maximum progradation of the system up to its closure due to the synsedimentary overthrusting of the orogenic wedge.
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This publication reflects a growing appreciation of the extent to which turbidite depositional system development is fundamentally affected by basin-floor topography. In the many turbidite and turbidite hydrocarbon reservoirs, depositional patterns have been moderately to strongly confined by pre-existing slopes; thus ‘submarine fans’ may be far from fan-shaped where constrained by significant bathymetric features. This volume examines aspects of sediment dispersal and accumulation in deep-water systems where sea-floor topography has exerted a decisive control on deposition, and explores the associated controls on hydrocarbon reservoir architecture and heterogeneity.
The papers presented here offer a global perspective, which is wide-ranging in terms of approach as well as location, including contrasting reviews and case studies of outcrop, subsurface, modern and experimental systems. This book will be of use both to academic geologists and to geoscience professionals in industry dealing with characterization and modelling of deep-water clastic reservoirs.