Basin-floor fans of the Central Tertiary Basin, Spitsbergen: relationship of basin-floor sand-bodies to prograding clinoforms in a structurally active basin
Jeff P. Crabaugh, Ronald J. Steel, 2004. "Basin-floor fans of the Central Tertiary Basin, Spitsbergen: relationship of basin-floor sand-bodies to prograding clinoforms in a structurally active basin", Confined Turbidite Systems, S. A. Lomas, P. Joseph
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Lower Eocene shelf-slope clinoforms are exposed in 1 × 10 km mountainside outcrops in the Central Tertiary Basin, Spitsbergen. Where clinoforms are sand-prone they include a deepwater sand complex. Submarine fans represent an early, basin-floor aggradational phase of clinoform growth, whereas later growth of the same clinoform involves a phase of shelf-margin accretion. Individual fans, within stacked series, can be distinguished when traced towards the slope, where a thickening wedge of mudstones separates successive fan bodies. The sand-prone parts of basin-floor fans are some 15–60 m thick and extend into the basin by up to 10–12 km. The lower levels of any fan consist of ripple- to parallel-laminated thin-bedded turbidites interbedded with some thick-bedded turbidites. This association changes irregularly upwards to a succession dominated by thick beds that are structureless and parallel-laminated. The thin-bedded facies are interpreted as turbidite sheets that formed as channel-mouth sandy lobes, sandy levees and crevasse splays. The erosively based, thick-bedded facies are interpreted as constructional channel-fill sandstones. The shallow channels fed sheet-complexes both laterally and distally. The apparent short basinward extent and longitudinal palaeocurrents for the youngest fans suggest that downslope sediment transport became longitudinally deflected by anticlinal topography once sediment reached the basin floor.