Skip to Main Content
Book Chapter

Correlations between eruption magnitude, SO2 yield, and surface cooling

By
S. Blake
S. Blake
Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK. (e-mail: s.blake@open.ac.uk)
Search for other works by this author on:
Published:
January 01, 2003

Abstract

Sulphurous gases from explosive eruptions have the potential to form stratospheric aerosols and so produce surface cooling on a hemispheric to global scale. However, testing for any correlation between SO2 yield and surface cooling is hampered by instrumental SO2 and temperature measurements being available for time periods that include only a few large eruptions. To overcome this, published dendroclimatological data, satellite (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data on SO2 emissions, stratospheric optical depth data, and volcanological observations are integrated, revealing several relevant new correlations. First, the efficient conversion of SO2 into stratospheric aerosols occurs when the ratio of plume height to tropopause height is greater than about 1.5. Second, the mass of emitted SO2 correlates well with the mass of erupted magma. The SO2 yield is 0.1 to 1% by mass of magma, irrespective of composition. The best-fit power law (r2=0.67) is mass of SO2 in Mt=1.77(mass of magma in Gt)0-64. Third, of the eruption clouds that are believed to have entered the stratosphere in the period 1400-1994, those with masses <5 Gt magma (DRE <2 km3) appear to have had insignificant effects on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature. The scattered data for eruptions of >10 Gt (>4 km3) magma suggest a mean cooling effect of about 0.35 °C.

You do not currently have access to this article.
Don't already have an account? Register

Figures & Tables

Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Volcanic Degassing

C. Oppenheimer
C. Oppenheimer
Search for other works by this author on:
D. M. Pyle
D. M. Pyle
Search for other works by this author on:
J. Barclay
J. Barclay
Search for other works by this author on:
Geological Society of London
Volume
213
ISBN electronic:
9781862394612
Publication date:
January 01, 2003

GeoRef

References

Related

A comprehensive resource of eBooks for researchers in the Earth Sciences

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

View Article Abstract & Purchase Options

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

Subscribe Now