Water diffusion in natural potassic melts
Published:January 01, 2003
Water diffusion experiments were performed on a trachytic melt from the Agnano-Monte Spina explosive eruption (Phlegrean Fields, South Italy). Experiments were run in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa pressure, at temperatures from 1373 to 1673 K and for durations of 0 to 255 s, using the diffusion-couple technique. Water concentration profiles were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Water diffusion coefficients at different temperatures and water concentrations were calculated from the total water profiles, using the Boltzmann Matano technique.
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Humans have long marvelled at (and feared) the odorous and colourful manifestations of volcanic emissions, and, in some cases, have harnessed them for their economic value. The degassing process responsible for these phenomena is now understood to be one of the key factors influencing the timing and nature of volcanic eruptions. Moreover the surface emissions of these volatiles can have profound effects on the atmospheric and terrestrial environment, and climate. Even more fundamental are the relationships between the history of planetary outgassing, differentiation of the Earth’s interior, chemistry of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and the origin and evolution of life. This book provides a compilation of 23 papers that investigate the behaviour of volatiles in magma, the feedbacks between degassing and magma dynamics, and the composition, flux, and environmental, atmospheric and climatic impacts of volcanic gas emissions.