Acid deposition and the deterioration of stone: A brief review of a broad topic
Published:January 01, 2002
A. Elena Charola, Robert Ware, 2002. "Acid deposition and the deterioration of stone: A brief review of a broad topic", Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies, S. Siegesmund, T. Weiss, A. Vollbrecht
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The causes of stone deterioration due to acid deposition are examined, with specific reference made to important research on this subject from the past thirty years. The major topics covered include: dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants, the primary agent of acid deterioration of stone in urban areas; wet deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain; and major deterioration mechanisms. Key factors are dry deposition of gaseous pollutants such as SO2 and NOx, the nature of the stone, including texture and porosity, and the presence of moisture on its surface as well as the ‘time of wetness’.
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Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies
The weathering of historical buildings and, indeed, of monuments and sculptures of natural stone is a problem that has been encountered for hundreds of years. However, a dramatic increase in deterioration in the structure of our built heritage has been observed during the past century. To understand the complex interaction that the stone in a building suffers with its near environment (the building) and the macro environment (the local climate and atmospheric conditions) requires an interdisciplinary approach and the application of many different theoretical, experimental and empirical resources provided by the geosciences, chemistry, material sciences, biology and construction engineers.
The protection of our architectural heritage has both cultural and historical importance, as well as substantial economic and ecological value. Large sums of money are being spent world-wide on measures for the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. Optimization of damage analysis procedures and damage process controls, as well as the development of monitoring and early warning systems for damage prevention, is needed. The past several decades has seen an unprecedented level of research activity in this area, the results of which are often difficult to access. This volume is intended to provide an integrated approach to the study of the deterioration of geomaterials, making the research available to a wide international audience.
Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies comprises thirty chapters divided into six sections: weathering of natural building stones; weathering processes; fabric dependence of physical properties; biodeterioration; quality assessment and conservation of stones; and environmental conditions. Review articles are combined with reports on recent progress in the various research fields, authored by a comprehensive team of international contributors. The volume will be of interest to all those involved in the protection of our built heritage, particularly geoscientists, material scientists, construction engineers, architects and stone conservators.