Correlating magmatic–hydrothermal ore deposit formation over time with geodynamic processes in SE Europe
Andor L. W. Lips, 2002. "Correlating magmatic–hydrothermal ore deposit formation over time with geodynamic processes in SE Europe", The Timing and Location of Major Ore Deposits in an Evolving Orogen, D. J. Blundell, F. Neubauer, A. von Quadt
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Numerous magmatic–hydrothermal metal deposits in SE Europe occur in relatively narrow belts of magmatic rocks that have been classically related to subduction. In contrast to the hundred million years of convergence and consumption of lithosphere at the subduction zones in the region, the belts have been produced in discrete time intervals. It has also become recognized that the dominant phases of mineralization in the belts were accompanied by extension. Research focusing on the evolution of the lithosphere at convergent margins identifies secondary thermal and mechanical processes that accompany the primary process of subduction. Such secondary processes have been identified as the possible trigger of the magmatism, regional crustal extension, and enhanced flow of heat and circulation of fluids. The lithosphere dynamics may thus have played a vital role in the formation and localization of the mineralization. Roll-back of the subducted lithosphere, or restoration of the orogenic wedge geometry by changes in internal friction, set by variations in rates of the Africa–Eurasia convergence; and gravitational collapse (e.g. involving slab detachment or root delamination), are the scenarios that favour extension and the transfer of heat to relatively shallow lithospheric levels. Analysis of the temporal and spatial constraints of these geodynamic processes, together with a refining of the timing of the main phases of mineralization is the first step to discriminate between the geodynamic causes, and to determine their effects in relatively short-lived regional igneous and hydrothermal activities and the formation of related mineralization.