Strange partners: formation and survival of continental crust and lithospheric mantle
Nicholas T. Arndt, Éric Lewin, Francis Albarède, 2002. "Strange partners: formation and survival of continental crust and lithospheric mantle", The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development, C. M. R. Fowler, C. J. Ebinger, C. J. Hawkesworth
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Continental lithosphere is a sandwich of two layers, each composed of materials that are rare in the upper parts of the Earth. Continental crust consists of low-temperature distillates produced during a succession of melting events; the underlying lithosphere is a remarkably pure concentrate of high-temperature, highly refractory minerals. Material with intermediate compositions, which should have been far more abundant, is missing. The two dominant components of Archaean lithospheric mantle, olivine with 92–94% forsterite and similarly magnesian orthopyroxene, form only a small proportion of the residue of large-scale mantle melting. Their accumulation to form the lithosphere requires efficient sorting, to separate them from the products of lower-degree melting. This sorting, which is driven by the buoyancy of these low-density phases and their high viscosity, takes place during: (1) plume ascent through the segregation of residues of high- and low-degree melting; (2) recycling of the residues through the mantle; (3) crystallization in the crust of a Hadean magma ocean. The higher-than-normal orthopyroxene content in the Kaapvaal and other cratons is due in part to density sorting and in part to exsolution of majorite, a residual phase during komatiite melting. Secular variation in lithosphere composition (a decrease in the proportion of magnesian olivine and orthopyroxene and an increase in clinopyroxene and spinel) reflects a progressive decline in high-degree melting, a consequence of falling mantle temperatures.
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The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development
This volume contains a series of papers that cover a wide range of aspects, including geophysics, structure and tectonics, atmosphere, origin of life, biosphere, deep mantle geochemistry, early oceans, microbial ecology, on the development of the Earth in the first 2000 Ma of its history.The aim of this publication is to facilitate future discussions and understanding of this area of research.
This book is divided into three parts:
Geophysical and petrological constraints on Archaean lithosphere
Models of cratonic evolution and modification
Constraints on the Archaean environment
Subjects covered include the chemical and biological controls on the atmosphere and oceans, early controls on the carbon cycle and photosynthesis, petrologic, isotopic, tectonic and seismic evidence for the composition and structure of Archaean lithosphere.
This volume should be of interest to geologists and geophysicists who work on the Archaean, and students at all levels.