Centennial-millennial-scale monsoon variations off Somalia over the last 35 ka
Published:January 01, 2002
Simon J. A. Jung, Ekatarina Ivanova, Gert Jan Reichart, Gareth R. Davies, Gerald Ganssen, Dick Kroon, Jan E. Van Hinte, 2002. "Centennial-millennial-scale monsoon variations off Somalia over the last 35 ka", The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, P. D. Clift, D. Kroon, C. Gaedicke, J. Craig
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We present a multi-proxy study of sediment Core 905 from the Arabian Sea offshore Somalia to assess the validity of a number of proxies for productivity, temperature and wind strength, to reconstruct the monsoon history in the western Arabian Sea. The present-day seasonal variation in productivity in the modern Arabian Sea off Somalia reflects the change from the high-productivity SW monsoon to the low-productivity NE monsoon seasons. Annual productivity is therefore largely controlled by SW monsoon driven upwelling. The geochemical records of Core 905 document millennial-scale variations, for example, in Ba/Al and Corg content. The Younger Dryas and the time equivalent period to Heinrich event 1 show low annual productivity whereas the early Holocene and Bølling-Allerød periods are characterized by high productivity. The upwelling-productivity peaked during Early Holocene time and was followed by a decrease toward the modern values. The total flux of planktic foraminifera and the concentration of the planktic foraminifera G. bulloides are not always controlled by the total productivity. Variations in calcite dissolution, the advection of expatriate fauna or a seasonal decoupling of primary and secondary production appear to hamper straightforward interpretations of those foraminifera records. We conclude that at significantly changed climatic boundary conditions compared with the present day, bulk-sediment-related proxies of productivity more consistently record the local upwelling history than foraminifer-based productivity proxies.
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The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region
Over long periods of time the tectonic evolution of the solid Earth has been recognized as the major control on the development of the global climate system. Tectonic activity acts in one of two different ways to influence regional and global climate: (i) through the opening and closing of oceanic gateways and its effect on the circulation patterns in the global ocean; (ii) through the growth and erosion of orogenic belts, resulting in changes in oceanic chemistry and disruption of atmospheric circulation. The Arabian Sea region has several features that make it the best area for studies of climate and palaeoceanographic responses to tectonic activity, most notably in the context of the South Asian monsoon and its relationship to the growth of high topography in the adjacent Himalayas and Tibet.
The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region brings together a collection of recent studies on the area from a wide group of international contributors. The paper range from high resolution, Holocene palaeoceanographic studies of the Pakistan margin to regional tectonic reconstructions of the ocean basin and surrounding margins throughout the Cenozoic. Marine geophysics, stratigraphy, isotope chemistry and neotectonics come together in a multidisciplinary approach to the study of interactions of land and sea. while much work remains to be done to understand fully the tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea, a great deal has been achieved since the last major review, as detailed in the 26 contributions. This volume is essential reading for palaeoceanographers, sedimentologists and geophysicists. It will also be interest to structural geologists and those working in the petroleum industry.