Sequence stratigraphy of the southern Kirthar Fold Belt and Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan
Published:January 01, 2002
John D. Smewing, John Warburton, Tim Daley, Philip Copestake, Nazir Ul-Haq, 2002. "Sequence stratigraphy of the southern Kirthar Fold Belt and Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan", The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, P. D. Clift, D. Kroon, C. Gaedicke, J. Craig
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The southern Kirthar Fold Belt (KFB) and the contiguous Middle Indus Basin (MIB) constitute a major oil and gas province on the southern Pakistan foreland. In the Middle Indus Basin, gas is reservoired in Early Cretaceous marginal marine sandstones sealed by Paleocene shales. Reservoir quality of the Early Cretaceous sediments deteriorates towards the fold belt, but recent discoveries of gas in Upper Cretaceous sandstones sealed by Paleocene shales have highlighted its potential. To understand better the petroleum systems of this region and provide a potential correlation scheme for comparison with other areas of the country, a sequence stratigraphic interpretation was carried out on the Jurassic to Recent sediments of the KFB and MIB. On the basis of outcrop and well data, 23 depositional sequences have been identified: five in the Jurassic units, 10 in the Cretaceous units and eight in the Tertiary units. Sequence boundaries have been defined according to the Exxon method of identifying unconformities and their correlative conformities. However, equal importance has been given to identifying the potentially more chronostratigraphically significant maximum flooding surfaces between these sequence boundaries so as to define accurately the component systems tracts of each sequence. The depositional systems are described in terms of their relationship to the existing lithostratigraphic framework and interpreted in terms of sedimentary responses to external (eustatic) or local (tectonic) events. Notwithstanding the presence of a eustatic signature on some sequences, the majority appear to be tectonically driven and can be related to plate margin events affecting the NW margin of the Indo-Pakistan Plate during its rift-drift-collision history.
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The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region
Over long periods of time the tectonic evolution of the solid Earth has been recognized as the major control on the development of the global climate system. Tectonic activity acts in one of two different ways to influence regional and global climate: (i) through the opening and closing of oceanic gateways and its effect on the circulation patterns in the global ocean; (ii) through the growth and erosion of orogenic belts, resulting in changes in oceanic chemistry and disruption of atmospheric circulation. The Arabian Sea region has several features that make it the best area for studies of climate and palaeoceanographic responses to tectonic activity, most notably in the context of the South Asian monsoon and its relationship to the growth of high topography in the adjacent Himalayas and Tibet.
The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region brings together a collection of recent studies on the area from a wide group of international contributors. The paper range from high resolution, Holocene palaeoceanographic studies of the Pakistan margin to regional tectonic reconstructions of the ocean basin and surrounding margins throughout the Cenozoic. Marine geophysics, stratigraphy, isotope chemistry and neotectonics come together in a multidisciplinary approach to the study of interactions of land and sea. while much work remains to be done to understand fully the tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea, a great deal has been achieved since the last major review, as detailed in the 26 contributions. This volume is essential reading for palaeoceanographers, sedimentologists and geophysicists. It will also be interest to structural geologists and those working in the petroleum industry.