Tectonic control on changes in sediment supply: Quaternary alluvial systems, Körös sub-basin, SE Hungary
Edit Thamó-Bozsó, Zsolt Kercsmár, Annamária Nádor, 2002. "Tectonic control on changes in sediment supply: Quaternary alluvial systems, Körös sub-basin, SE Hungary", Sediment Flux to Basins: Causes, Controls and Consequences, S.J. Jones, L.E. Frostick
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The Pannonian Basin of Hungary is Europe's largest inter-mountain basin, where an evolution in drainage development patterns during the Quaternary was caused by changes in sediment flux to the basin, the dynamics of basin morphology development and the uplift history of the Apuseni Mountains source area, all directly or indirectly related to the tectonic systems operating in the region. Micro-mineralogical data of detrital heavy minerals from modern rivers and two key boreholes covering a time span from the present back to 2.6 Ma have been grouped by statistical analysis into two main clusters and some sub-clusters. The samples within the same cluster have a similar composition, and originated from the same source area. Based on the similar palaeogeographical setting of the potential source areas during the Quaternary, it has been possible to extrapolate the present transport directions of the rivers with a well-known catchment area geology and the heavy mineral composition to Pleistocene borehole data. The changes in transport directions were clearly sharp and related to significant changes in the uplift history of the Apuseni Mountains catchment area. During the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene the compressional stress field operating in the East Carpathians region resulted in the thrust-driven uplift of the Apuseni Mountains and the formation of a syn-sedimentary trap at the western margin of the source area, which captured the sediments of short, transverse rivers. During this period the drainage of the study area was characterized by axial drainage parallel to this trap, and sediments were transported from
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There is an increasing trend in the Earth sciences towards the integration of many subdisciplines. The sedimendatry basin, is a fundamental focal point of many studies, which as a consequence often neglects the complimentary drainage basin or catchment. Sedimentary basins provide a record of Earth history, reflecting the geographical, lithological, oceanographic and ecological development through the rock record. Drainage basins in comparison record ephemeral landscape evolution, where topography is eroded and provides the flux of sediment to the basin. The basin fill reflects the sediment flux from the hinterland and provides evidence of the dynamic geomorphic processes. In context the drainage system and sedimentary basin can be regarded as a ‘production line’ with sedimentary record giving valuable insight into long-term landscape evolution and geomorphological processes illuminating the evolution of sedimentary basins.
This volume assesses the current position of understanding sediment supply to basins with the integration of the many sub-disciplines in the Earth sciences. It documents a mix of hinterland and sedimentary basin studies with a gradation from orogenic belts to the deep marine. The authors represent a wide spectrum of Earth scientist, with leaders in the science providing review papers and new-directive papers in their field of specialization.