Cenozoic sedimentation and tectonics in Borneo: climatic influences on orogenesis
Robert Hall, Gary Nichols, 2002. "Cenozoic sedimentation and tectonics in Borneo: climatic influences on orogenesis", Sediment Flux to Basins: Causes, Controls and Consequences, S.J. Jones, L.E. Frostick
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The volume of sediment deposited in the basins around Borneo indicates that at least 6 km of crust has been removed by erosion during the Neogene. The amount of tectonic uplift implied by this is not reflected in a large area of high mountains on the island, which has an average elevation much lower than that of the Alps or Himalayas. High weathering and erosion rates in the tropical climate of SE Asia are likely to have been an important factor governing the formation of relief in Borneo, and consequently, controlled the structural development of the orogenic belt. Very rapid removal of material by erosion prevented tectonic denudation by faulting: around Borneo there was no lithospheric flexure due to thrust loading and no true foreland basins were developed. The sediment was deposited adjacent to the orogenic belt in older, deep oceanic basins. In terms of sediment yield, the Borneo mountains are comparable in importance to mountain ranges such as the Alps or Himalayas. However, the differences in elevation and structural style suggest that mountain belts formed in regions of high erosion rates may be different from those formed in other settings and the effects of climate need to be considered to understand orogenic evolution.
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There is an increasing trend in the Earth sciences towards the integration of many subdisciplines. The sedimendatry basin, is a fundamental focal point of many studies, which as a consequence often neglects the complimentary drainage basin or catchment. Sedimentary basins provide a record of Earth history, reflecting the geographical, lithological, oceanographic and ecological development through the rock record. Drainage basins in comparison record ephemeral landscape evolution, where topography is eroded and provides the flux of sediment to the basin. The basin fill reflects the sediment flux from the hinterland and provides evidence of the dynamic geomorphic processes. In context the drainage system and sedimentary basin can be regarded as a ‘production line’ with sedimentary record giving valuable insight into long-term landscape evolution and geomorphological processes illuminating the evolution of sedimentary basins.
This volume assesses the current position of understanding sediment supply to basins with the integration of the many sub-disciplines in the Earth sciences. It documents a mix of hinterland and sedimentary basin studies with a gradation from orogenic belts to the deep marine. The authors represent a wide spectrum of Earth scientist, with leaders in the science providing review papers and new-directive papers in their field of specialization.