Glacial transport and secondary hydromorphic metal mobilization: examples from the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada
Roger C. Paulen, 2001. "Glacial transport and secondary hydromorphic metal mobilization: examples from the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada", Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain, M. B. McClenaghan, P. T. Bobrowsky, G. E. M. Hall, S. J. Cook
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Glacial transport of trace elements was studied at seven mineral occurrences in the southern interior of British Columbia; a region where mineral exploration is hampered by the scarcity of bedrock outcrop and by a variable sediment thickness associated with the Cordilleran lce Sheet. The till deposited in the region was, for the most part, a product of the last glacial period. A review of previous geochemical studies conducted by the mineral exploration industry provides an indication to the variable configuration of the local dispersal patterns in the area. Dispersal trains in till are short, generally < 1–2 km, rarely exceeding 10 km in length and are usually proximal to bedrock source. They are commonly ribbon-shaped and rarely exceed 1 km in width. Observed dispersal patterns suggest that drastic changes in topography might have affected basal ice velocity which increased the distance of glacial transport. In addition, the distance that separates bedrock mineralization from its surficial geochemical expression in till varies with drift thickness and topography. Several glacial dispersal trains have been modified in shape by secondary hydromorphic dispersion.
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Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain
This volume describes the use of till geochemical and indicator mineral methods for mineral exploration in glaciated terrain of Canada. The principles and examples described in this volume wil have direct applications for exploration companies and prospectors exploring for diamonds, precious and base metals and uranium in glaciated parts of North America, northern Europe and Asia and mountainous regions of South America.
The first two papers in this volume provide an introduction to glaciated terrain and the two styles of glaciation that have affected the world, continental glaciers in broad flat lying Shield areas and alpine glaciers in mountainous terrain. Sampling techniques are described next, followed by an introduction to the use of heavy minerals. Heavy mineral methodss have become an important exploration tool in glaciated terrain for gold and base metals and, in the last ten years, for diamonds. Lake sediments and biogeochemical methods are also included in this volume as a complement to geochemical and indicator mineral methods in glaciated terrain. A chapter on GIS has been included because data interpretation and display are important and essential parts of any regional or detailed geochemical survey. The remainder of the volume is case studies for the three main glaciated terrain tyes in Canada: Shield, Appalachia and Cordillera