No extinctions during Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b: the Aptian–Albian benthic foraminiferal record of ODP Leg 171
Ann Holbourn, Wolfgang Kuhnt, 2001. "No extinctions during Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b: the Aptian–Albian benthic foraminiferal record of ODP Leg 171", Western North Atlantic Palaeogene and Cretaceous Palaeoceanography, Dick Kroon, R. D. Norris, A. Klaus
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Outstandingly well-preserved benthic foraminiferal successions from upper Aptian-lower Albian sediments at Site 1049 (Leg 171, Blake Nose escarpment, western North Atlantic) provide a detailed record of the faunal turnover across Oceanic Anoxic Event lb (OAE lb). Changes in abundance, diversity and species composition reflect strong fluctuations in carbon flux and bottom-water oxygenation. Before the onset of black shale sedimentation, the originally diverse assemblages are replaced by low-diversity associations, dominated by species inferred to be opportunistic phytodetritus feeders and thriving on an enhanced carbon flux to the sea floor. The 46 cm thick laminated black shale horizon corresponding to OAE lb is virtually devoid of benthic foraminifers or contains highly impoverished assemblages, suggesting that intense eutrophication and/or strong stratification triggered near anoxia at the sea floor during black shale deposition. Above the black shale, reoccurrence of the pre-black shale fauna points to relatively rapid bottom-water reoxygenation. The benthic foraminiferal record of Leg 171 provides clear evidence that no major extinctions occurred across OAE lb, as most of the species occurring below the black shale reappear above it. In contrast to other Cretaceous anoxic events, OAE lb may have been more limited in duration or in geographical and water-depth extent, allowing recolonization from adjacent, more hospitable areas, once local conditions improved at the sea floor. Prolific radiation within the suborder Rotaliina and diversification of Textulariina with calcareous cement appear to have started in the Aptian time before OAE lb, and continued into early AIbian time to give rise to many of the modern lineages.
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Palaeogene and Cretaceous palaeoceanography has been the focus of intense international interest in the last few years, spurred by deep ocean drilling at Blake Nose in the North Atlantic as well as the need to use past climate change as input for modelling future climate change. This book brings together a number of review papers that describe ancient oceans and unique events in the Earth’s climatic history and evolution of biota. The papers show evidence of periods characterized by exceptional global warmth such as the Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum and Cretaceous anoxic events. Geochemical records and modelling will make the reader aware that these periods were forced by greenhouse gases. This information is essential for understanding the response of the ocean—climate system to the current input of fossil fuels. In this sense, the book contributes to the understanding of fundamental aspects of Earth’s climate, the carbon cycle, and marine ecosystems. A number of papers describe massive mass wasting deposits resulting from the energy released by the bolide impact at the Cretaceous—Tertiary boundary as well as the geochemistry of the boundary itself. Additional papers cover aspects of cyclostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of Palaeogene and Cretaceous records.
This book will be of interest to a broad audience of Earth Scientists interested in Palaeogene—Cretaceous palaeoceanography, extreme climate modelling, Cretaceous—Tertiary boundary, Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum, Cretaceous anoxic events, as well as those specifically interested in radiolarian, dinoflagellate and coccolithophorid stratigraphy.