Functional anatomy, chemosymbiosis and evolution of the Lucinidae
All Lucinidae species studied so far possess sulphide-oxidizing, chemosymbiotic bacteria housed in bacteriocytes of gill filaments. The ecology, functional anatomy and evolution of the Lucinidae must be considered in relation to this symbiosis. The ctenidia have been extensively studied but other anatomical structures peculiar to lucinids have received much less attention. Reviewed are the morphological diversity of living lucinids, highlighting features of their anatomy including ctenidia, pallial apertures, anterior adductor muscle, pallial blood vessel and mantle gills. The latter are much more complex than previously understood and are here redescribed. They comprise folded structures located near the anterior adductor muscle in Codakia, Phacoides and Lucina, and on the septum of Anodontia. These are interpreted as secondary respiratory surfaces, their location enabling the separation of the anterior inflow of oxygenated water from sulphide-containing water. The latter is released from the sediment by the probing activities of the highly extensible foot and is pumped over the gill through the pedal gape and perhaps also via the exhalant tube. The shell features of Ilionia from the Silurian Period suggests that the lucinid chemosymbiosis is an ancient association.
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The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia
Bivalves are key components of Recent marine and freshwater ecosystems and have been so for most of the Phanerozoic. Their rich and long fossil record, combined with their abundance and diversity in modern seas, has made bivalves the ideal subject of palaeobiological and evolutionary studies. Despite this, however, topics such as the early evolution of the class, relationships between various taxa and the life habits of some key extinct forms have remained remarkably unclear.
In the last few years there has been enormous expansion in the range of techniques available to both palaeontologists and zoologists and key discoveries of new faunas which shed new light on the evolutionary biology of this important class.
This volume integrates palaeontological and zoological approaches and sheds new light on the course of bivalve evolution. This series of 32 original papers tackles key issues including: up to date molecular phylogenies of major groups; new hard and soft tissue morphological cladistic analyses; reassessments of the early Palaeozoic radiation; important new observations on form and functional morphology; analyses of biogeography and biodiversity; novel (palaeo)ecological studies