On becoming cemented: evolutionary relationships among the genera in the freshwater bivalve family Etheriidae (Bivalvia: Unionoida)
Arthur E. Bogan, Walter R. Hoeh, 2000. "On becoming cemented: evolutionary relationships among the genera in the freshwater bivalve family Etheriidae (Bivalvia: Unionoida)", The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia, E. M. Harper, J. D. Taylor, J. A. Crame
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A robust phylogeny for the Unionoida is emerging and presumed relationships of some major clades are being questioned. The Etheriidae or freshwater oysters has been a distinct family for over 160 years and currently contains three cemented genera: Acostaea (Columbia, South America), Pseudomulleria (India) and Etheria (Africa and Madagascar). Starobogatov (1970, Nauka, 1–372), Mansur and da Silva (1990, Amazoniana, 11(2), 147–166) and Bonetto (1997, Biociências, 5, 113–142) present conflicting testable hypotheses regarding the evolution of these taxa. Using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA sequences the evolutionary relationships of these three genera has been examined, by comparing them to representatives of 30 other unionoid taxa from around the world. These analyses place Acostaea and Etheria within the Mycetopodidae while Pseudomulleria falls within the Unionidae. A monophyletic Etheriidae, composed of cemented freshwater bivalves, is not supported by the present analyses. Furthermore, the analyses indicate that cementation in the Unionida has evolved at least twice.
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The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia
Bivalves are key components of Recent marine and freshwater ecosystems and have been so for most of the Phanerozoic. Their rich and long fossil record, combined with their abundance and diversity in modern seas, has made bivalves the ideal subject of palaeobiological and evolutionary studies. Despite this, however, topics such as the early evolution of the class, relationships between various taxa and the life habits of some key extinct forms have remained remarkably unclear.
In the last few years there has been enormous expansion in the range of techniques available to both palaeontologists and zoologists and key discoveries of new faunas which shed new light on the evolutionary biology of this important class.
This volume integrates palaeontological and zoological approaches and sheds new light on the course of bivalve evolution. This series of 32 original papers tackles key issues including: up to date molecular phylogenies of major groups; new hard and soft tissue morphological cladistic analyses; reassessments of the early Palaeozoic radiation; important new observations on form and functional morphology; analyses of biogeography and biodiversity; novel (palaeo)ecological studies