Molecular phylogeny of the Bivalvia inferred from 18S rDNA sequences with particular reference to the Pteriomorphia
Gerhard Steiner, Sabine Hammer, 2000. "Molecular phylogeny of the Bivalvia inferred from 18S rDNA sequences with particular reference to the Pteriomorphia", The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia, E. M. Harper, J. D. Taylor, J. A. Crame
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The classification of the Pteriomorphia, a major division of the Bivalvia with Ordovician origins, is controversial both among palaeontologists and neontologists. To elucidate phylogenetic relationships new near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of 26 Pteriomorphia, three Protobranchia, three Heterodonta, one Anomalodesmata and three Scaphopoda were obtained, aligned with 71 other published molluscan sequences, and analysed with parsimony, maximum likelihood and spectral analysis. Although Bivalvia appear diphyletic due to heterogeneity of substitution rates among lineages, monophyly of Protobranchia, Heteroconchia and Pteriomorphia is supported. The heteroconch Lucinida, Myoida and Venerida are not monophyletic, and Anomalodesmata arise from within Heteroconchia. The basal nodes of Pteriomorphia have little support but two major clades, [Pinnoidea (Ostreoidea + Pterioidea)] and [(Anomioidea + Plicatuloidea) + (Limoidea + Pectinoidea)], are resolved with more confidence. The strongly supported clade of Anomioidea + Plicatuloidea, the separation of Pinnoidea from Pterioidea and most of the intrafamiliar relationships are not in accordance with morphological classifications. Combining these results with selected morphological characters, a phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed showing Mytiloidea and Arcoidea as the basal pteriomorph groups, the latter giving rise to the clade uniting the pinnoid-ostreoid-pterioid and the anomioid-limoid-pectinoid lines.
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The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia
Bivalves are key components of Recent marine and freshwater ecosystems and have been so for most of the Phanerozoic. Their rich and long fossil record, combined with their abundance and diversity in modern seas, has made bivalves the ideal subject of palaeobiological and evolutionary studies. Despite this, however, topics such as the early evolution of the class, relationships between various taxa and the life habits of some key extinct forms have remained remarkably unclear.
In the last few years there has been enormous expansion in the range of techniques available to both palaeontologists and zoologists and key discoveries of new faunas which shed new light on the evolutionary biology of this important class.
This volume integrates palaeontological and zoological approaches and sheds new light on the course of bivalve evolution. This series of 32 original papers tackles key issues including: up to date molecular phylogenies of major groups; new hard and soft tissue morphological cladistic analyses; reassessments of the early Palaeozoic radiation; important new observations on form and functional morphology; analyses of biogeography and biodiversity; novel (palaeo)ecological studies