Structural styles and deformation fields in glaciers: a review
Published:January 01, 2000
Michael J. Hambrey, Wendy Lawson, 2000. "Structural styles and deformation fields in glaciers: a review", Deformation of Glacial Materials, Alex J. Maltman, Bryn Hubbard, Michael J. Hambrey
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Early structural glaciological research focused on analysis of particular structures or on mapping of structural features at particular glaciers. More recently, glacier structures have been interpreted in the context of deformation rates and histories measured or estimated using a range of techniques. These measurements indicate that glacier ice experiences complex, polyphase deformation histories that can include a wide range of types, rates and orientations of strain. Deformation styles in glacier ice resemble those in rocks, but occur at a much faster rate, allowing direct measurements to be undertaken, and providing potentially useful models of rock deformation. Structural analysis in the context of measured deformation shows that a wide range of structures (e.g. folds, foliations, boudins, shear zones, crevasses and faults) develop in response to complex strain environments, but strain does not necessarily result in the generation of structures. In the future, three-dimensional numerical modelling may be able to interpret and predict deformation histories and structural development.
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Deformation of Glacial Materials
The flow of glacier ice can produce structures that are striking and beautiful. Associated sediments, too, can develop spectacular deformation structures, and examples are remarkbly well preserved in Quaternary deposits. Although such features have long been recognized, they are now the subject of new attention from glaciologists and glacial geologists.
This collection of papers addresses how the methods for unravelling deformation structures evolved in recent years by structural geologists can be used for glacial materials, and the opportunities offered to structural geologists by glacial materials for studying deformation in rocks.