Aral İ. Okay, 2000. "Was the Late Triassic orogeny in Turkey caused by the collision of an oceanic plateau?", Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area, Erdin Bozkurt, John A. Winchester, John D. A. Piper
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A belt of Late Triassic deformation and metamorphism (Cimmeride Orogeny) extends east-west for 1100 km in northern Turkey. It is proposed that this was caused by the collision and partial accretion of an Early-Middle Triassic oceanic plateau with the southern continental margin of Laurasia. The upper part of this oceanic plateau is recognized as a thick Lower-Middle Triassic metabasite-marble-phyllite complex, named the Nilüfer Unit, which covers an area of 120 000 km2 with an estimated volume of mafic rocks of 2 × 105 km3. The mafic sequence, which has thin stratigraphic intercalations of hemipelagic limestone and shale, shows consistent within-plate geochemical signatures. The Nilüfer Unit has undergone a high-pressure greenschist facies metamorphism, but also includes tectonic slices of eclogite and blueschist with latest Triassic isotopic ages, produced during the attempted subduction of the plateau. The short period for the orogeny (< 15 Ma; Norian-Hettangian) is further evidence for the oceanic plateau origin of the Cimmeride Orogeny. The accretion of the Nilüfer Plateau produced strong uplift and compressional deformation in the hanging wall. A large and thick clastic wedge, fed from the granitic basement of the Laurasia, represented by a thick Upper Triassic arkosic sandstone sequence in northwest Turkey, engulfed the subduction zone and the Nilüfer Plateau.
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Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area
This volume contains 23 papers from a range of international contributors, describing recent research into the tectonics and magmatism of Turkey and its surroundings. This region is sited at the collision zone between Eurasia and Afro-Arabia and, as such, provides an extraordinarily complete and well-exposed record of the staged tectonic evolution of this sector of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. The geological history of this area involves separation of continental fragments from the margin of Gondwana, their migration across the Tethyan oceans, the subsequent closure of these oceans and, finally, the development of the neotectonic regime, which continues to evolve to the present day. Such a comprehensive record is relevant to the understanding of collisional zones worldwide.
The volume is divided into five sections: Tethyan evolution, Neotethyan ophiolites, post-Tethyan basin evolution, neotectonics and igneous activity. The first two sections deal with Tethyan oceans, whose growth and subsequent closure dominated the geodynamic framework in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The subsequent sections deal with more recent geological developments from the Balkan Peninsula in the west to the Transcaucasus in the east that followed consumption of the Tethyan oceans. There is a broad mix of papers throughout the volume: wide-ranging review papers on ocean development and extensional tectonics are followed by detailed descriptions of petrology and geochemistry and geographically focused studies on basin evolution, specific aspects of extensional and strike-slip tectonics and discussions of the relationship of magmatic activity to the tectonic development of the area.
Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area presents up-to-date results and ideas from a large number of international contributors on a wide range of current research activity in this region. It is essential reading for all geoscientists with an interest in both academic and applied aspects of eastern Mediterranean geology.