The Main Mantle Thrust in Pakistan: its character and extent
Published:January 01, 2000
J. A. Dipietro, A. Hussain, I. Ahmad, M. A. Khan, 2000. "The Main Mantle Thrust in Pakistan: its character and extent", Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya, M. Asif Khan, Peter J. Treloar, Michael P. Searle, M. Qasim Jan
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The Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) represents the tectonic boundary between metamorphic shield and platform rock of the Indian plate hinterland, and dominantly mafic and ultramafic rock of the Kohistan-Ladakh arc complex in Pakistan. In some areas, this boundary is a sharp planar fault with development of mylonite; in other areas, it is a brittle-ductile imbricate zone; in still other areas, it contains large, discontinuous, slices of internally sheared and deformed ophiolitic mélange. The character of the MMT along its entire trace is discussed and it is concluded that there is no single continuous fault which marks the contact between the Indian plate and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc. On this basis, we propose a revised definition for the MMT that is consistent with both the original definition and with the usage of the term in literature. We suggest that the MMT fault contact be defined as the series of faults, of different age and tectonic history, that collectively define the northern margin of the Indian plate in Pakistan. On this basis, faults that define the MMT vary in age from Quaternary to possibly as old as Late Cretaceous. Discontinuous lenses of ophiolitic mélange that overlie the MMT fault contact, and which intervene between the Indian plate and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc, are considered to be part of an MMT zone that is equivalent with the Indus Suture Zone.
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Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya
The western syntaxis of the Himalaya is one of the most exciting frontiers of continental tectonis studies. The region around the mountain of Nanga Parbat has some of the highest peaks, deepest valleys and highest uplift, exhumation and erosion rates known on earth. Surrounding regions include the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains (Asian plate), the Kohistan island arc and the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges of the western Himalaya (Indian plate). This volume includes 24 papers on all these regions as well as five new fold-out maps of the eastern Hindu Kush, the Spontang Ophiolite region of Ladakh, part of the west margin of the Indian plate, the Indus syntaxis in Pakistan and the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Pakistan.