Isotopic constraints on the evolution of metamorphic conditions in the Jijal–Patan complex and the Kamila Belt of the Kohistan arc, Pakistan Himalaya
Published:January 01, 2000
R. Anczkiewicz, D. Vance, 2000. "Isotopic constraints on the evolution of metamorphic conditions in the Jijal–Patan complex and the Kamila Belt of the Kohistan arc, Pakistan Himalaya", Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya, M. Asif Khan, Peter J. Treloar, Michael P. Searle, M. Qasim Jan
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Pressure-temperature data and Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr garnet ages are presented for retrogressed granulitic rocks of the Jijal-Patan complex and the Kamila Amphibolite Belt. Despite the retrogression and hydration, the two samples contain garnet and hydrous minerals that yield pressures and temperatures similar to previous estimates for pristine granulite facies rocks from the same area. The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr garnet ages are concordant at 95–100 Ma for the two samples and for both isotopic systems. These ages are interpreted as dating cooling through 700–800 °C following magmatic crystallization and granulite facies metamorphism. In the case of the garnet amphibolites from the Kamila Belt, the garnets retain prograde major element zonation. In addition, the closure temperature for the Rb-Sr system is very close to the recorded temperature. For these reasons, the age of 100 Ma must represent a time close to that when the pressure and temperature preserved in the mineralogy and its chemistry was recorded. The isotopic equilibrium between garnet and paragonite at 90–100 Ma suggests that the regional hydration event that affected the lower crust of the Kohistan arc also occurred at this time. Cooling rates calculated from the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages for the partially retrogressed granulite give a minimum of 3–6 °C Ma−1 and imply a different tectonic mechanism for the exhumation of the lower crust than is typical for granulites. This process may be related to early regional decompression following the collision of the Kohistan arc with Eurasia.
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Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya
The western syntaxis of the Himalaya is one of the most exciting frontiers of continental tectonis studies. The region around the mountain of Nanga Parbat has some of the highest peaks, deepest valleys and highest uplift, exhumation and erosion rates known on earth. Surrounding regions include the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains (Asian plate), the Kohistan island arc and the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges of the western Himalaya (Indian plate). This volume includes 24 papers on all these regions as well as five new fold-out maps of the eastern Hindu Kush, the Spontang Ophiolite region of Ladakh, part of the west margin of the Indian plate, the Indus syntaxis in Pakistan and the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Pakistan.