Mafic sheets from Indian plate gneisses in the Nanga Parbat syntaxis: their significance in dating crustal growth and metamorphic and deformation events
Published:January 01, 2000
P. J. Treloar, M. T. George, A. G. Whittington, 2000. "Mafic sheets from Indian plate gneisses in the Nanga Parbat syntaxis: their significance in dating crustal growth and metamorphic and deformation events", Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya, M. Asif Khan, Peter J. Treloar, Michael P. Searle, M. Qasim Jan
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Indian plate, granulite facies, migmatitic basement gneisses exposed within the Nanga Parbat syntaxis host at least two generations of mafic sheets. In the southern part of the syntaxis, concordant sheets yield Palaeo-Proterozoic model ages of 2.2–2.6 Ga, which probably date early stages of continental growth. In the northern part of the syntaxis the sheets include a suite of discordant, silica-saturated or oversaturated sub-alkaline basalts extracted from a slightly depleted sub-continental mantle. Nd model ages and an imprecise Sm-Nd isochron yield an age of emplacement at between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. That these dykes cross-cut granulite facies migmatitic fabrics implies that peak metamorphism in the Indian plate gneisses was, at latest, Meso-Proterozoic and not Tertiary in age. Zircon and amphibole ages published elsewhere suggest that this metamorphism was probably c. 1850 Ma in age. That the basement gneisses were refractory by the Tertiary has implications for the derivation of leucogranite sheets during the Neogene. Although the gneisses experienced a Tertiary-aged metamorphism, it was to lower temperatures than the Meso-Proterozoic metamorphism. Unless the gneisses were rehydrated during the Tertiary, the leucogranites need to have been sourced from more fertile rocks underplating the granulite facies basement complex.
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Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya
The western syntaxis of the Himalaya is one of the most exciting frontiers of continental tectonis studies. The region around the mountain of Nanga Parbat has some of the highest peaks, deepest valleys and highest uplift, exhumation and erosion rates known on earth. Surrounding regions include the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains (Asian plate), the Kohistan island arc and the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges of the western Himalaya (Indian plate). This volume includes 24 papers on all these regions as well as five new fold-out maps of the eastern Hindu Kush, the Spontang Ophiolite region of Ladakh, part of the west margin of the Indian plate, the Indus syntaxis in Pakistan and the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Pakistan.