Moema laminites: a newly recognized Neoproterozoic (?) glaciogenic unit, São Francisco Basin, Brazil
Antonio C. Rocha-Campos, Benjamin B. De Brito Neves, Marly Babinski, Paulo R. Dos Santos, Sônia M. B. De Oliveira, A. Romano, 2011. "Moema laminites: a newly recognized Neoproterozoic (?) glaciogenic unit, São Francisco Basin, Brazil", The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations, Emmanuelle Arnaud, Galen P. Halverson, Graham Shields-Zhou
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A recently identified diamictite and silt-clay laminite, which discordantly overlie the Archaean basement and underlie the Neoproterozoic Bambui Group, have been informally named as the Moema Laminites. They are preserved at the southwestern margin of the São Francisco Basin in southeastern Brazil, and are widely distributed in the central-western Minas Gerais state. They crop out discontinuously over at least 140 km along a north–south direction. The nomenclature of and stratigraphic relationships between the Moema Laminites and other isolated Neoproterozic occurrences of similar rocks are in a state of flux. Two exceptionally good exposures of the Moema Laminites show good evidence for deposition under glacial conditions. At the Formiga locality, a single glacial advance is registered by a deformation tillite, while overlying laminite records deposition in a post-glacial, probably marine basin following deglaciation. At the SAFFRAN quarry, striations on a bedding plane may have been caused by floating sea-ice that just touched the bottom of the basin. Much additional work is needed to establish relationships between the Moema Laminites and other similar occurrences. If these and Moema Laminites are shown to be Cryogenian glacial deposits, the area covered by the Cryogenian glaciations in the São Francisco basin is much larger than formerly believed.
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In recent years, interest in Neoproterozoic glaciations has grown as their pivotal role in Earth system evolution has become increasingly clear. One of the main goals of the IGCP Project No. 512 was to produce a synthesis of newly available information on Neoproterozoic successions worldwide similar in format to Hambrey & Harland’s (1981) Earth’s pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record. This Memoir therefore consists of a series of overview chapters followed by site-specific chapters. The overview chapters cover key topics including the history of research on Neoproterozoic glaciations, identification of glacial deposits, chemostratigraphic techniques and datasets, palaeomagnetism, biostratigraphy, geochronology and climate modelling. The site specific chapters for 60 successions worldwide include reviews of the history of research on these rocks and up-to-date syntheses of the structural framework, tectonic setting, palaeomagnetic and geochronological constraints, physical, biological, and chemical stratigraphy, and descriptions of the glaciogenic and associated strata, including economic deposits.