Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton, Brazil: the Bambuí, Una, Vazante and Vaza Barris/Miaba groups and their glaciogenic deposits
Aroldo Misi, Alan J. Kaufman, Karem Azmy, Marcel Auguste Dardenne, Alcides Nóbrega Sial, Tolentino Flávio De Oliveira, 2011. "Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton, Brazil: the Bambuí, Una, Vazante and Vaza Barris/Miaba groups and their glaciogenic deposits", The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations, Emmanuelle Arnaud, Galen P. Halverson, Graham Shields-Zhou
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The Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton are primarily represented by the Bambuí and Una groups, deposited in cratonic epicontinental basins, and by the Vazante and Vaza Barris/Miaba groups, which accumulated on passive margins on the edges of the craton. The epicontinental basins comprise three megasequences: glaciogenic, carbonate platform (marine) and dominantly continental siliciclastics. Possible correlative sequences are observed in the passive margin deposits. At least two major transgressive–regressive sea-level cycles occurred during the evolution of the carbonate megasequence, which lies above glaciomarine diamictites of probable early Cryogenian (i.e. Sturtian) age. C, O, Sr and S isotope trends from analyses of well-preserved samples, together with lithostratigraphic observations, provide reasonable correlations for most of the Neoproterozoic successions of the São Francisco Craton. The 87Sr/86Sr record of these successions, ranging from 0.70769 to 0.70780, supports the proposed correlation with the Bambuí, Una and Vaza/Barris successions, and with the basal units of the Vazante Group. In addition, C-isotope positive excursions ranging from +8.7 to +14‰ and negative excursions from –5.7 to –7‰ VPDB in the Bambuí, Una and Vaza-Barris successions provide key markers for correlations. The precise ages of the sedimentation in these successions remains a matter of debate, but organic shales of two units of the Vazante Group have been dated by Re–Os techniques in two different laboratories, both yielding Mesoproterozoic ages. The Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic successions preserve significant glaciogenic deposits.
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In recent years, interest in Neoproterozoic glaciations has grown as their pivotal role in Earth system evolution has become increasingly clear. One of the main goals of the IGCP Project No. 512 was to produce a synthesis of newly available information on Neoproterozoic successions worldwide similar in format to Hambrey & Harland’s (1981) Earth’s pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record. This Memoir therefore consists of a series of overview chapters followed by site-specific chapters. The overview chapters cover key topics including the history of research on Neoproterozoic glaciations, identification of glacial deposits, chemostratigraphic techniques and datasets, palaeomagnetism, biostratigraphy, geochronology and climate modelling. The site specific chapters for 60 successions worldwide include reviews of the history of research on these rocks and up-to-date syntheses of the structural framework, tectonic setting, palaeomagnetic and geochronological constraints, physical, biological, and chemical stratigraphy, and descriptions of the glaciogenic and associated strata, including economic deposits.