The Chiquerío Formation, southern Peru
David Chew, Christopher Kirkland, 2011. "The Chiquerío Formation, southern Peru", The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations, Emmanuelle Arnaud, Galen P. Halverson, Graham Shields-Zhou
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The Chiquerío Formation (Fm.) is a thick glaciogenic succession deposited unconformably on gneisses of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru. It has undergone greenschist facies metamorphism during Early Palaeozoic orogenesis. The Chiquerío Fm. consists of nearly 400 m of diamictite, sandstone, mudstone and carbonate, with a thin (11 m) cap dolostone at the top of the formation. It is overlain by the San Juan Fm., a 2-km-thick carbonate succession. The thick glacially influenced succession was deposited in deep marine conditions and consists mainly of massive diamictites (representing either ice-rafted debris or submarine debris flows) interbedded with turbiditic sandstones. Where internal lamination is present (e.g. bedding in the turbiditic packages), abundant dropstones can be recognized. There is no evidence of shallow marine reworking of the succession. No absolute age constraints on the depositional timing of the Chiquerío Fm. exist, because no volcanic tuffs have yet been identified. U–Pb dating of detrital zircons (U–Th–Pb SIMS) from the Chiquerío Fm. and the overlying San Juan Fm. suggest it is autochthonous with respect to Amazonia, as the detrital zircon age spectra suggest derivation from the Amazonian craton. Detrital grains as young as c. 700 Ma have been documented in the post-glacial San Juan Fm. The sparse (chemo)stratigraphic data available for the Chiquerío Fm. exhibit patterns similar to those observed generally in Neoproterozoic post-glacial carbonate sequences. Palaeogeographic models for the deposition of the Chiquerío Fm. are critically dependent on the timing of the docking of the basement of the Arequipa massif with the South American craton (Amazonia). Presently there are no palaeomagnetic constraints. More research on the chronological and palaeogeographical constraints of this succession is required.
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In recent years, interest in Neoproterozoic glaciations has grown as their pivotal role in Earth system evolution has become increasingly clear. One of the main goals of the IGCP Project No. 512 was to produce a synthesis of newly available information on Neoproterozoic successions worldwide similar in format to Hambrey & Harland’s (1981) Earth’s pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record. This Memoir therefore consists of a series of overview chapters followed by site-specific chapters. The overview chapters cover key topics including the history of research on Neoproterozoic glaciations, identification of glacial deposits, chemostratigraphic techniques and datasets, palaeomagnetism, biostratigraphy, geochronology and climate modelling. The site specific chapters for 60 successions worldwide include reviews of the history of research on these rocks and up-to-date syntheses of the structural framework, tectonic setting, palaeomagnetic and geochronological constraints, physical, biological, and chemical stratigraphy, and descriptions of the glaciogenic and associated strata, including economic deposits.