The Karoetjes Kop and Bloupoort formations, Gifberg Group, South Africa
Hartwig E. Frimmel, 2011. "The Karoetjes Kop and Bloupoort formations, Gifberg Group, South Africa", The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations, Emmanuelle Arnaud, Galen P. Halverson, Graham Shields-Zhou
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The Vredendal Outlier near the South African west coast lies in an intermediate position between the late Neoproterozoic Gariep Belt further north and the Cambrian Saldania Belt further south. It consists of a sedimentary succession of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks, unified as the Gifberg Group, which contains two diamictite-bearing units, the Karoetjes Kop Formation at the base and the Bloupoort Formation near the top of the group. The diamictite of the Karoetjes Kop Formation represents mainly debris flow deposits in a continental rift setting, with some contribution from retreating glaciers. In contrast, the younger diamticite in the Bloupoort Formation is glaciomarine, is associated with banded iron-formation, is underlain by stromatolitic reef carbonates and is overlain by carbonates. Most of the Gifberg Group is poorly exposed and poorly investigated. In the absence of radiometric age data, stratigraphic interpretation and correlation is based on lithological and chemostratigraphic evidence. The entire Gifberg Group is considered to be equivalent to the much better investigated Port Nolloth Group in the Gariep Belt (sensu stricto). Whereas the Karoetjes Kop Formation is correlated with the c. 750 Ma Kaigas Formation of the Gariep Belt, the diamictite and associated banded iron-formation of the Bloupoort Formation are regarded as correlatives of the Numees Formation of the Gariep Belt. The entire Gifberg Group was subjected to transpressional deformation and accompanying low-grade metamorphism during continental collision between the Rio de la Plata and Kalahari plates at the end of the Neoproterozoic and again during the Cambrian accretionary orogeny along the southwestern margin of Gondwana, which led to the development of the Saldania Belt further south.
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In recent years, interest in Neoproterozoic glaciations has grown as their pivotal role in Earth system evolution has become increasingly clear. One of the main goals of the IGCP Project No. 512 was to produce a synthesis of newly available information on Neoproterozoic successions worldwide similar in format to Hambrey & Harland’s (1981) Earth’s pre-Pleistocene Glacial Record. This Memoir therefore consists of a series of overview chapters followed by site-specific chapters. The overview chapters cover key topics including the history of research on Neoproterozoic glaciations, identification of glacial deposits, chemostratigraphic techniques and datasets, palaeomagnetism, biostratigraphy, geochronology and climate modelling. The site specific chapters for 60 successions worldwide include reviews of the history of research on these rocks and up-to-date syntheses of the structural framework, tectonic setting, palaeomagnetic and geochronological constraints, physical, biological, and chemical stratigraphy, and descriptions of the glaciogenic and associated strata, including economic deposits.