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The Kaigas and Numees formations, Port Nolloth Group, in South Africa and Namibia

Hartwig E. Frimmel
Hartwig E. Frimmel
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaPresent address: Geodynamics & Geomaterials Research Division, Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany (e-mail:
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January 01, 2011


The Port Nolloth Group makes up the eastern, external part of the Pan-African Gariep Belt (Port Nolloth Zone) in southern Namibia and western South Africa. It contains two glaciogenic diamictite units, the older Kaigas Formation and the younger Numees Formation, with intercalated and overlying carbonate-dominated units. Available chemostratigraphic information include O, C and Sr isotope data. Micropalaeontological and geochronological data point to an early Cryogenian age (c. 750 Ma) of the Kaigas Formation and possibly a middle Ediacaran age (c. 580 Ma) for the Numees Formation. The former was deposited in an evolving, but eventually failed, continental rift on the western flank of the Kalahari Craton, probably at low latitude. The Numees Formation is a laterally continuous, up to 600-m-thick glaciomarine deposit for which a passive continental margin setting has been suggested. Alternatively, based on more recent data, the depositional setting might have been a back-arc basin. The eroded remnants of the corresponding arc are present in the Dom Feliciano Belt.

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Figures & Tables


Geological Society, London, Memoirs

The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations

Emmanuelle Arnaud
Emmanuelle Arnaud
University of Guelph, Canada
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Galen P. Halverson
Galen P. Halverson
McGill University, Canada
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Graham Shields-Zhou
Graham Shields-Zhou
University College London, UK
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Geological Society of London
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Publication date:
January 01, 2011




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