Forced Folds and Fractures
This volume is concerned with defining the major similarities and difference between forced folds and buckle folds in order that these differences can be used to recognize the type of folding (and therefore the expected fracture pattern) present in regions of poor exposure or where the geologist has to rely on seismic images. An understanding of the differences between the two fold types (their 3D geometry, spatial organization, fracture patterns etc.) provides an invaluable tool for Earth scientists concerned with assessing the possible role of folds and their associated fracture patterns in controlling fluid migration and concentration within the crust.
The papers presented here are grouped into 4 sections. Contributions in the first section describe the use of numerical analyses to investigate the formation of fractures in forced folds, including compaction folds, and the section contains a description of large-scale compaction folding in which the associated fracturing has given rise to the development of large sandstone dykes. The papers in the second section deal with the formation of forced folds as a result of normal faulting in various geological environments including along a classical graben margin and around a resurgent caldera. The third section contains papers relating to forced folding in compressional and strike-slip regimes. The final section considers the temporal and spatial relationships between forced folds and buckle folds, the formation of crustal-scale folds, and a method of determining the distribution of strain on any folded surface, a key parameter controlling the distribution of fractures.
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