4D seismic imaging of an injected CO2 plume at the Sleipner Field, central North Sea
R.A. Chadwick, R. Arts, O. Eiken, G. A. Kirby, E. Lindeberg, P. Zweigel, 2004. "4D seismic imaging of an injected CO2 plume at the Sleipner Field, central North Sea", 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins, Richard J. Davies, Joseph A. Cartwright, Simon A. Stewart, Mark Lappin, John R. Underhill
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CO2 produced at the Sleipner field is being injected into the Utsira Sand, a major saline aquifer. Time-lapse seismic data acquired in 1999, with 2.35 million tonnes of CO2 in the reservoir, image the CO2, plume as a number of bright sub-horizontal reflections. These are interpreted as tuned responses from thin (< 8 m thick) layers of CO2 trapped beneath intra-reservoir shales. A prominent vertical ‘chimney’ of CO2 appears to be the principal feeder of these layers in the upper part of the reservoir. Amplitude-thickness scaling for each layer, followed by a layer summation, indicates that roughly 80% of the total injected CO2 is concentrated in the layers. The remainder is interpreted to occupy the feeder ‘chimneys’ and dispersed clouds between the layers. A prominent velocity pushdown is evident beneath the CO2 accumulations. Velocity estimation using the Gassmann relationships suggests that the observed pushdown cannot readily be explained by CO2 present only at high saturations in the thin layers; a minor proportion of low saturation CO2 is also required. This is consistent with the layer volume summation, but significant uncertainty remains.
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3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins
A ‘new age’ of subsurface geological mapping that is just as far ranging in scope as the frontier source geological mapping campaigns of the past two centuries in emerging. It is the direct result of the advent of 2D, and subsequently 3D, seismic data paralleled by advances in seismic acquisition and processing over the past three decades. Subsurface mapping is fuelled by the economic drive to explore and recover hydrocarbons but inevitably it will lead to major conceptual advances in Earth sciences, across a broader range of disciplines than those made during the 2D seismic revolution of the 1970s. Now that 3D seismic data coverage has increased and the technology is widely available we are poised to mine the full intellectual and economic benefits. This book illustrates how 3D seismic technology is being used to understand depositional systems and stratigraphy, structural and igneous geology, in developing and producing from hydrocarbon reservoirs and also what recent technological advances have been made. This technological journey is a fast-moving one where the remaining scientific potential still far exceeds the scope of the advances made thus far. This book explores the breadth of the opportunities that lie ahead as well as the inevitable accompanying challeges.