Use of 3D visualization techniques to unravel complex fault patterns for production planning: Njord field, Halten Terrace, Norway
Chris Dart, Ian Cloke, Åge Herdlevær, Dominique Gillard, Jan C. Rivenæs, Cecilie Otterlei, Eivind Johnsen, Anders Ekern, 2004. "Use of 3D visualization techniques to unravel complex fault patterns for production planning: Njord field, Halten Terrace, Norway", 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins, Richard J. Davies, Joseph A. Cartwright, Simon A. Stewart, Mark Lappin, John R. Underhill
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In this paper we demonstrate the benefits of 3D seismic visualization techniques for fault interpretation where the structural geology is complex and the seismic data quality is often poor. Production from the Njord field is strongly influenced by a complex pattern of segmented and linked extensional faults. The current interpretation of the well test data and production history is that the faults form barriers to fluid flow, reducing oil production, and limiting effective gas injection and pressure support. Drilling results demonstrate that geometrical uncertainties remain in the seismic interpretation. An additional problem is that currently available commercial reservoir modelling technology cannot easily handle a very complex fault pattern, making simulation grid construction difficult. Accurate well placement and production forecasting requires that fault geometries and properties are suitably represented in the reservoir simulation model. 3D visualization of depth-scaled volumes and depth-converted interpretations helped to decide how to best simplify the fault geometry for simulation, and compare automatically generated geological model components against seismic interpretations and data. The reservoir simulation model runs resulted in the identification of a number of well targets. 3D visualization techniques were then used to predict faults and structures that the proposed well trajectories may intersect.
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A ‘new age’ of subsurface geological mapping that is just as far ranging in scope as the frontier source geological mapping campaigns of the past two centuries in emerging. It is the direct result of the advent of 2D, and subsequently 3D, seismic data paralleled by advances in seismic acquisition and processing over the past three decades. Subsurface mapping is fuelled by the economic drive to explore and recover hydrocarbons but inevitably it will lead to major conceptual advances in Earth sciences, across a broader range of disciplines than those made during the 2D seismic revolution of the 1970s. Now that 3D seismic data coverage has increased and the technology is widely available we are poised to mine the full intellectual and economic benefits. This book illustrates how 3D seismic technology is being used to understand depositional systems and stratigraphy, structural and igneous geology, in developing and producing from hydrocarbon reservoirs and also what recent technological advances have been made. This technological journey is a fast-moving one where the remaining scientific potential still far exceeds the scope of the advances made thus far. This book explores the breadth of the opportunities that lie ahead as well as the inevitable accompanying challeges.