Exploration 3D seismic over the Gjallar Ridge, Mid-Norway: visualization of structures on the Norwegian volcanic margin from Moho to seafloor
S. M. Corfield, W. Wheeler, R. Karpuz, M. Wilson, R. Helland, 2004. "Exploration 3D seismic over the Gjallar Ridge, Mid-Norway: visualization of structures on the Norwegian volcanic margin from Moho to seafloor", 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins, Richard J. Davies, Joseph A. Cartwright, Simon A. Stewart, Mark Lappin, John R. Underhill
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We present an analysis of a unique 3D survey that allows us to relate the deep structure of the crystalline crust to the shallow structure of the overlying, potentially hydrocarbon-rich sedimentary basins. The survey is located over the Gjallar Ridge, Mid-Norway, and extends from a Moho-level reflector at around 15 km depth to polygonal faulting and diapiric structures at or near the seabed. 3D visualization techniques using seismic workstations and the Cave immersive environment have been used to illustrate the geometries of these features. The deep reflector is correlated with the top of a deep, high-density, high-velocity body that is interpreted to indicate the presence of magmatic underplating and is intimately related to localized uplift of the Gjallar Ridge. Abundant high-amplitude reflectors in the deep Cretaceous sections of the survey are interpreted as sills emplaced during the Palaeocene magmatic event and are therefore interpreted to be coeval with the magmatic underplate. In contrast, the shallow parts of the survey have numerous gas-charged mud diapirs and an extensive network of polygonal faults extending to the seabed. Study of such very deep or very shallow features is not standard industry practice. However, the intention here is to demonstrate that, by utilizing the full volume of 3D seismic data, it is not only of scientific interest but also results in a greater understanding of the tectonic history of a hydrocarbon prospect.