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Four mechanisms caused tephra fallout at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, during the 1995–1999 period: explosive activity (mainly of Vulcanian type), dome collapses, ash-venting and phreatic explosions. The first two mechanisms contributed most of the tephra-fallout deposits (minimum total dense-rock equivalent volume of 23 × 106 m3), which vary from massive to layered and represent the amalgamation of the deposits from a large numbers of events. The volume of co-pyroclastic-flow fallout tephra is in the range 4-16° of the associated pyroclastic flow deposits. Dome-collapse fallout tephra is characterized by ash particles generated by fragmentation in the pyroclastic...

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