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Eyewitness and survivor accounts allow reconstruction of the sequence of events on 25 June 1997, when a sustained partial collapse of the lava dome occurred leading to the death of 19 people. An unsteady pyroclastic flow was generated with three distinct pulses. The third flow pulse caused most of the damage to infrastructure and most, if not all, of the casualties. Pyroclastic surges detached along most of the path of the third flow pulse, and one travelled 70 m up an adjacent hillside.

Observations were made that will be important for the development of mitigation measures at future events...

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