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Book Chapter

Andean magmatism

By
Miguel A. Parada (coordinator)
Miguel A. Parada (coordinator)
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Leopoldo López-Escobar
Leopoldo López-Escobar
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Verónica Oliveros
Verónica Oliveros
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Francisco Fuentes
Francisco Fuentes
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Diego Morata
Diego Morata
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Mauricio Calderón
Mauricio Calderón
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Luis Aguirre
Luis Aguirre
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Gilbert Féraud
Gilbert Féraud
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Felipe Espinoza
Felipe Espinoza
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Hugo Moreno
Hugo Moreno
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Oscar Figueroa
Oscar Figueroa
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Jorge Muñoz Bravo
Jorge Muñoz Bravo
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Rosa Troncoso Vásquez
Rosa Troncoso Vásquez
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Charles R. Stern
Charles R. Stern
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Published:
January 01, 2007

Abstract

Magmatism in the Chilean Andes has taken place since about 300 Ma as a consequence of protracted subduction, although with significant spatial and temporal variations due to changes in ocean-floor geodynamics controlling distinct large-scale magmatic events. Early subduction along the Chilean segment of the Gondwana active margin took place during Late Palaeozoic times and generated typical arc magmatism and a subduction complex in the forearc environment. This tectonomagmatic regime was interrupted by mid-Permian contractional tectonics (collisional?) giving rise to a thickening of the crust that allowed deep crustal melt generation. Following this the entire Mesozoic history of the area became dominated by subduction-related extensional tectonics with mostly bimodal magmatism reflecting the involvement, to different degrees, of both crust and mantle as magma sources. Mesozoic volcanism and plutonism appear to have been independent of each other. Subsequent Cenozoic magmatism records changing geodynamic conditions from Palaeogene–early Neogene extension to late Neogene compression. The Neogene magmatic episodes are interpreted as an indirect consequence of oceanic ridge subduction: the Juan Fernández Ridge along the north-central Chilean margin, and the Chile Ridge along the southernmost Chilean border. Modern volcanism is also influenced by these ridge subductions, either by generating gaps in the Quaternary volcanic chain, or adakitic volcanism derived from slab melting.

Despite the essentially tectonic control outlined above, this chapter is subdivided geographically into four Andean segments, each of which exhibits distinct magmatic features. These segments are: 18–28°S, 28–38°S, 40–47°S and 47–55°S. The exception to this approach is the section on Quaternary volcanism, which

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Geological Society, London, Geology of Series

The Geology of Chile

Teresa Moreno
Teresa Moreno
Earth Sciences Institute ‘Jaume Almera’, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona, Spain
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Wes Gibbons
Wes Gibbons
AP 23075, Barcelona, Spain
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Geological Society of London
ISBN electronic:
9781862393936
Publication date:
January 01, 2007

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