Published:January 01, 2008
Ulf Linnemann, Rolf L. Romer, Christian Pin, Paweł Aleksandrowski, Zbigniew Buła, Thorsten Geisler, Václav Kachlik, Ewa Krzemińska, Stanisław Mazur, Gediminas Motuza, J. Brendan Murphy, R. Damian Nance, Sergei A. Pisarevsky, Bernhard Schulz, Jens Ulrich, Janina Wiszniewska, Jerzy Żaba, Armin Zeh, 2008. "Precambrian", The Geology of Central Europe: Volume 1: Precambrian and Palaeozoic, T. McCann
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Around 88% of the history of the Earth occurred during the Precambrian period, which can be subdivided into the Archaean and the Proterozoic eons (Figs. 2.1 & 2.2). The Archaean eon (Greek archaia — ancient ones; 4.56-2.5 Ga) comprises the Eo-Palaeo-, Meso-and Neoarchaean eras. For the early Archaean the term Hadean is also used (Greek hades — unseen or hell; 4.56-3.8 Ga) (Fig. 2.1). The Proterozoic eon (Greek proteros — first, zoon — creature; 2.5-0.542 Ga) is composed of the Palaeo-, Meso-and Neoproterozoic eras (Fig. 2.2). The latter eras can be subdivided into different periods defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy on the basis of geochronological data and characteristic features such as particular geotectonic settings and events (Gradstein et al. 2004). Palaeoproterozoic periods include the Siderian (Greek sideros — iron; 2.5-2.3 Ga), the Rhyacian (Greek rhyax — steam of lava; 2.3-2.05 Ga), the Orosirian (Greek orosira — mountain range; 2.05-1.8 Ga) and the Statherian (Greek statheros — stable; 1.8-1.6 Ga). The Calymmian (Greek calymma — cover; 1.6-1.4 Ga), Ectasian (Greek ectasis — extension; 1.4-1.2 Ga), and Stenian (Greek stenos — narrow; 1.2-1.0 Ga) are the Mesoproterozoic periods, while the Neoproterozoic is subdivided into the Tonian (Greek tonas — stretch; 1.0-0.85 Ga), Cryogenian (Greek cryos — ice, genesis — birth; 0.85-0.635 Ga), and finally Ediacaran (0.635-0.542 Ma). This latter is named after the Ediacara Hills (Flinders Ranges, Australia) and characteristically contains the Ediacara biota which represents the dawn of evolved life-forms. The Ediacaran period
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The Geology of Central Europe: Volume 1: Precambrian and Palaeozoic
This two-volume set provides the first comprehensive account in English of the geology of Central Europe. Written by more than 200 scientists from universities and research centres spread across Europe and North America, the 21 chapters are based on the main stratigraphic periods. Individual chapters outline the evolution of the region divided into a variety of sections which include overviews of the stratigraphic framework, climate, sea-level variations, palaeogeography and magmatic activity. These are followed by more detailed descriptions of the Central European succession, covering the main basins and magmatic provinces. Each chapter is thoroughly referenced, providing a unique and valuable information source.
Volume 1 focuses on the evolution of Central Europe from the Precambrian to the Permian, a dynamic period which traces the formation of Central Europe from a series of microcontinents that separated from Gondwana through to the creation of Pangaea. Separate summary chapters on the Cadomian, Caledonian and Variscan orogenic events as well as on Palaeozoic magmatism provide an overview of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the region. These descriptions sometimes extend beyond the borders of Central Europe to take in the Scottish and Irish Caledonides as well as the Palaeozoic successions in the Baltic region.
Volume 2 provides an overview of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of Central Europe. This period commenced with the destruction of Pangaea and ended with the formation of the Alps and Carpathians and the subsequent Ice Ages. Separate summary chapters on the Permian to Cretaceous tectonics and the Alpine evolution are also included. The final chapter provides an overview of the fossil fuels, ore and industrial minerals in the region.
The Geology of Central Europe is a key reference work suitable not only for libraries across the world, but of interest to all researchers, teachers and students of European Geology.