Antonio Castro, L. Guillermo Corretgé, Jesús De La Rosa, Pere Enrique, Francisco J. Martínez, Emilio Pascual, Marceliano Lago, Enrique Arranz, Carlos Galé, Carlos Fernández, Teodosio Donaire, Susana López, 2002. "Palaeozoic Magmatism", The Geology of Spain, Wes Gibbons, Teresa Moreno
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Most Palaeozoic magmatic rocks in Spain were produced during the Variscan orogeny, and there are excellent and abundant examples of both volcanic and plutonic lithologies. Volcanic units include those in the world-famous Iberian Pyrite Belt, and plutonic rocks exposed in the Iberian Massif include some of the largest and best granite outcrops in the European Variscides. Magmatic rocks are present in all the Iberian tectonostratigraphic zones into which the Variscan orogen in Spain has been classically divided. In addition to these Variscan igneous rocks, there is also evidence for earlier magmatism, including widespread exposures of Neo-proterozoic–Cambrian (Cadomian) age, and the diatreme-like breccias linked to the origin of the remarkable mercury mineralization at Almaden.
In this chapter we deal initially with Palaeozoic volcanic rocks, with special emphasis on the volcanism related to the generation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. With regard to the Variscan granitoid rocks we have grouped these according to compositional features and relative age, rather than by tectonostratigraphic zones (the latter approach does not contribute to a better understanding of the magmatism because the emphasis is on differences and not on similarities). However, Variscan granites of the Iberian Massif are described separately from other granitic massifs in the Pyrenees and Catalonian Coastal ranges, because of their geographic separation and the lack of obvious direct links between them.
Outcrops of distinctive mafic and ultramafic rocks, mostly related to granitoids of the appinite–granodiorite association (cf. Pitcher 1997), are treated separately, not least because of their importance in international
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This book provides the first comprehensive account in English of the geology of mainland Spain and the Balearic and Canary islands. It has been written by 159 research-active, mostly Spanish authors working together in teams from over 20 universities and other centres of research excellence. The 19 chapters begin with an overview of Spanish geology prepared by the editors, followed by a detailed examination of Iberian Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks in Spain, Variscan magmatism and tectonics, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary record and fossil record. Subsequent chapters deal with the Alpine orogeny in the Pyrenees, Betics and other mountain ranges of Spain and the Balearic Islands, and with Cenozoic magmatism, including the classic hot-spot-related volcanism of the Canary Islands. The final chapter focuses on economic and environmental geology, emphasizing metallic deposits and industrial minerals, hydrocarbon energy resources, water supply, and modern seismic hazard. Finally a bibliography of around 4000 references provides a uniquely valuable information source. Encompassing subjects as diverse as the origin of Spanish granites, the palaeogeographic and tectonometamorphic history of the Iberian plate, human evolution in the SW Mediterranean, and modern volcanism and earthquake activity, The Geology of Spain is a key reference work suitable not only for libraries across the world, but of interest to all researchers, teachers and students of SW European geology.