Antonio Castro, L. Guillermo Corretgé, Jesús De La Rosa, Pere Enrique, Francisco J. Martínez, Emilio Pascual, Marceliano Lago, Enrique Arranz, Carlos Galé, Carlos Fernández, Teodosio Donaire, Susana López, 2002. "Palaeozoic Magmatism", The Geology of Spain, Wes Gibbons, Teresa Moreno
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Most Palaeozoic magmatic rocks in Spain were produced during the Variscan orogeny, and there are excellent and abundant examples of both volcanic and plutonic lithologies. Volcanic units include those in the world-famous Iberian Pyrite Belt, and plutonic rocks exposed in the Iberian Massif include some of the largest and best granite outcrops in the European Variscides. Magmatic rocks are present in all the Iberian tectonostratigraphic zones into which the Variscan orogen in Spain has been classically divided. In addition to these Variscan igneous rocks, there is also evidence for earlier magmatism, including widespread exposures of Neo-proterozoic–Cambrian (Cadomian) age, and the diatreme-like breccias linked to the origin of the remarkable mercury mineralization at Almaden.
In this chapter we deal initially with Palaeozoic volcanic rocks, with special emphasis on the volcanism related to the generation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. With regard to the Variscan granitoid rocks we have grouped these according to compositional features and relative age, rather than by tectonostratigraphic zones (the latter approach does not contribute to a better understanding of the magmatism because the emphasis is on differences and not on similarities). However, Variscan granites of the Iberian Massif are described separately from other granitic massifs in the Pyrenees and Catalonian Coastal ranges, because of their geographic separation and the lack of obvious direct links between them.
Outcrops of distinctive mafic and ultramafic rocks, mostly related to granitoids of the appinite–granodiorite association (cf. Pitcher 1997), are treated separately, not least because of their importance in international