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Book Chapter

Diagenesis: Deformation Features

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Published:
January 01, 2015

Abstract

This chapter covers a range of structural features that can occur at thin-section scale in terrigenous rocks, including natural fractures, deformation bands, grain-scale strain features, stylolites and cone-in-cone structures. However, soft-sediment deformation features are not substantially covered here, because they are visibleatthin-sectionlevelprimarilyinveryfine-grained strata, and thus were previously illustrated in Chapter 8); likewise, compaction-related deformation features were largely covered in Chapter 10. The structures discussed in this chapter, especially fractures and deformation bands, play a major role in porosity-permeability relationships and hydrocarbon reservoir performance of many sandstones and mudstones. Although tectonic processes are commonly inferred to be the causes of brittle deformation structures, elevated pore-fluid pressures (and rapid or episodic loss of such overpressures) also have been shown to play a major role in formation of many natural fractures and veins (e.g., Cartwright, 1994; Miller, 1995; Conybeare and Shaw, 2000; Cosgrove, 2001; Cobbold et al., 2013). Natural overpressures can be generated in a variety of settings as a result of rapid burial of low-permeability strata, hydrocarbon generation, expulsion of water from evaporites and other processes (e.g., Burrus, 1998; Swarbrick and Osborne, 1998), and artificial generation of elevated fluid pressures is the basis of modern induced hydraulic fracing.

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Contents

AAPG Memoir

A Color Guide to the Petrography of Sandstones, Siltstones, Shales and Associated Rocks

Dana S. Ulmer-Scholle
Dana S. Ulmer-Scholle
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Peter A. Scholle
Peter A. Scholle
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Juergen Schieber
Juergen Schieber
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Robert J. Raine
Robert J. Raine
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American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Volume
109
ISBN electronic:
9781629812731
Publication date:
January 01, 2015

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