2015. "Diagenesis: Compaction", A Color Guide to the Petrography of Sandstones, Siltstones, Shales and Associated Rocks, Dana S. Ulmer-Scholle, Peter A. Scholle, Juergen Schieber, Robert J. Raine
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Compaction is one of the major processes by which sediments lose porosity and begin the transformation to sedimentary rocks. Compaction is driven mainly by overburden loading and involves changes in the packing density of constituent grains. This is accomplished initially through grain reorientation and repacking accompanied by water expulsion from porous sediments. With additional overburden loading, fracturing and cleavage of brittle grains and plastic deformation of ductile grains contribute to increased packing density and concomitant loss of pore space. Further reduction of intergranular pore space, beyond that produced by “mechanical compaction”, results from pressure-solution processes, sometimes termed “chemical compaction”. Chemical compaction includes selective dissolution and interpenetration at grain-to-grain contacts, as well as broader dissolution along solution seams and stylolites. Although more common in carbonate rocks, chemical compaction features are widespread in clastic terrigenous deposits as well (e.g., Heald, 1955; Walderhaug and Bjørkum, 2003).