The Ballantrae Complex and Southern Uplands terrane
The Lower Palaeozoic accretionary thrust belt forming the Southern Uplands terrane lies to the northwest of the Iapetus Suture and to the southeast of the Southern Upland Fault (Fig. 6.1). The former structure marks the line of closure of the Iapetus Ocean and of collision between the continental blocks of Laurentia and Avalonia; it underlies the Solway Firth and approximates to the line of the Anglo-Scottish border. The latter structure separates the Southern Uplands terrane from the mainly Upper Palaeozoic rocks of the Midland Valley terrane and in particular the Ballantrae Complex. The following sections have been contributed by B. J. Bluck (Ballantrae), P. Stone (Southern Uplands stratigraphy, and provenance) and G. J. H. Oliver (Southern Uplands structure, metamorphism, and geodynamics).
Figures & Tables
This 4th edition of The Geology of Scotland is edited by Dr Nigel Trewin of the Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology at the University of Aberdeen. The volume is greatly expanded from the previous edition with 34 authors contributing to 20 chapters.
A new format has been adopted to provide a different perspective on the geology of Scotland. A brief Introduction is followed by a chapter outlining some of the important historical aspects that in the 19th century placed Scottish geologists at the forefront of a new science.
Scotland is constructed from a number of terranes that finally combined in roughly their present positions prior to about 410 million years ago. Thus the geology of each terrane is described up to the time of amalgamation, providing chapters on the Southern Uplands, Midland Valley, Northern Highland, Grampian and Hebridean terranes. At the end of this section, a brief synthesis summarizes the events that resulted in the amalgamation of the various terranes into the present configuration.
Traditional practice is followed in the description of the Old Red Sandstone, Carboniferous, Permo-Trias, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary strata. A separate chapter covers Tertiary igneous rocks. An attempt is made to tell the story of the geological evolution of Scotland, rather than catalogue all areas and formations. Priority is given to the onshore geology, encouraging the reader to go into the field and visit some of the world-class geology on show in Scotland. The chapters are broadly-based, attempting to integrate the sedimentary and igneous histories, and summarize changes in palaeogeography and palaeoenvironments.
Economic aspects are covered with chapters on Metalliferous Minerals, Bulk Resources, Coal and Hydrocarbons. A new departure is a chapter on aspects of Environmental Geology and sustainability.
Additionally, this publication contains a colour section of 32 plates, illustrating aspects of Scottish Geology, as well as a coloured geological map of Scotland.