The aims of this chapter are to summarize the geological history of, and to introduce the broad geological and geophysical structure of Scotland. The geological history (NHT) is largely drawn from the contributions to this volume, and the reader will find references in the appropriate chapters. There are significant differences of opinion expressed in the various chapters of this volume, and this author has attempted not to promote any particular view in this account. The deeper structure (KER) has to be modelled on a particular interpretation of structural relationships and rock properties, and models based on a variety of hypotheses could be used. Thus it must be stressed that many aspects of Scottish geology continue to promote vigorous debate, and in some areas there is no common consensus.