Chapter 4 Hazards and the desert ground model
Published:January 01, 2012
J. S. Griffiths, M. Stokes, Engineering Group Working Party, 2012. "Chapter 4 Hazards and the desert ground model", Hot Deserts: Engineering, Geology and Geomorphology Engineering Group Working Party Report, M. J. Walker
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To establish the nature of the ground conditions to facilitate construction, and to ensure that the risk of unexpected conditions (e.g. previously unrecognized hazards) or impacts (e.g. unanticipated changes) can be reduced, it is necessary to develop a preliminary ‘ground model’ of the ground conditions at any proposed construction/development site. Different forms of the ground model have been constructed and the various types been labelled as ‘geotechnical models’, ‘engineering geological models’ or ‘conceptual models of ground conditions’. However, they could all be given the general label ‘geomodels’, and typically these models include a basic geological map and a geomorphological plan. These enable a three-dimensional (3D) representation of the surface and subsurface conditions at the site to be created in which the nature of the ground conditions is established and all potential risks to the project are at least tentatively identified. The bases for the production of geomodels for engineering geology were laid down by Fookes (1997) and Fookes et al. (2000) as part of the ‘Total Geology Approach’ to site investigation (Fookes & Baynes 2008). Modern developments using computer-based models, often developed using a geographical information system (GIS), were described, for example, by Culshaw (2005).
Initially, preliminary geomodels are developed from desk studies of available sources, including topographical maps and remote sensing data, and are concentrated on identifying the relevant geomorphological systems and subsystems, along with the main environmental controls on landscape development. These models form the starting point for the process of
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Hot Deserts: Engineering, Geology and Geomorphology Engineering Group Working Party Report
This volume provides an authoritative and comprehensive state-of-the-art review of hot desert terrains in all parts of the world, their geomaterials and influence on civil engineering site investigation, design and construction. It primarily covers conditions and materials in modern hot deserts, but there is also coverage of unmodified ancient desert soils that exhibit engineering behaviour similar to modern desert materials. Thorough and up-to-date guidance on modern field evaluation and ground investigation techniques in hot arid areas is provided, including reference to a new approach to the desert model and detailed specialized assessments of the latest methods for materials characterization and testing.
The volume is based on world-wide experience in hot desert terrain and draws upon the knowledge and expertise of the members of a Geological Society Engineering Group Working Party comprising practising geologists, geomorphologists and civil engineers with a wealth of varied, but complementary experience of working in hot deserts.
This is an essential reference book for professionals, as well as a valuable textbook for students. It is written in a style that is accessible to the non-specialist. A comprehensive glossary is also included.