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Both natural and artificial aggregates of coarse and fine sizes are employed in bituminous mixtures for highway and airfield pavements (Fig. 10.1) and in hydraulic and building appHcations (The Shell Bitumen Handbook 1990).

The emphasis in this chapter is upon the use of bituminous materials in pavement construction. The same factors affecting mix density, strength, stiffness and adhesion, apply in hydraulic applications as in pavement construction. However, in the former, greater attention is paid to such properties as permeabiHty (which may be required to be high or low depending on the particular application), resistance to flow on steep slopes and, where relevant, to wave impact (Hills & McAughtry, 1986). Polishing resistance characteristics of aggregates clearly have no importance in hydraulic applications but, in building construction, mastic asphalts used in bridge decks and in decks and ramps of multi-storey car parks require a high skid resistance. Chief among the requirements of mastic asphalt for bridge decks, roofing and car parks is impermeability in order to protect the underlying concrete construction from water and frost attack and from the effect of de-icing salts and other chemicals (Mastic Asphalt Conferences 1989). The major factor in these applications is the mix design, involving use of a high bitumen content in accord with the high content of fine aggregate and filler in the aggregate grading.

It should be noted that, at the time of going to press, several relevant developments were taking place with respect to the

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