Published:January 01, 2001
The purpose of the aggregate processing plant is to prepare the rock or mineral in a form suitable for its use as aggregate, commonly defined in terms of particle size and size distribution, particle shape and mechanical properties, e.g. compressive strength. As a result, the process plant usually contains only the unit processes of crushing and grinding (comminution) and sizing together with materials handling and transportation equipment such as conveyors and feeders.
The use of water and wet processing techniques facilitates the sizing of fine particles (classification) and the dispersal and subsequent rejection of finely sized mineral particles, e.g. clays. Consequently, the process plant may frequently also contain pumping and slurry handling equipment and unit processes of solid-liquid separation for final dewatering of the aggregate products and even waste products.
Mineral separation processes are occasionally employed to reject material of undesirable physical or chemical properties. In this respect the process of sizing is commonly used adventitiously or deliberately to separate a particular mineral fraction of the aggregate as will be discussed below.
Comminution is an energy intensive and relatively expensive process whose use must be minimized and the agglomeration of fine particles to create larger sizes is rarely if ever economically justified.
Therefore, as discussed in Chapter 3, in the case of sand and gravel deposits it is important to determine the relative proportions of the ‘sand’ and ‘gravel’ sizes.
All plants should be provided with sufficient monitoring instrumentation, e.g. mass flow meters, sampling points and control
Figures & Tables
Aggregates: Sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes
In 1985, the Geological Society published Aggregates as the first volume in its Engineering Geology Special Publication series. It met with immediate acclaim, being awarded the Brewis Trophy by SAGA in 1986.
“If your work involves the use of aggregates, buy this book and read no further; this volume will be an essential and valuable reference that you will use for many years.” (Canadian Geotechnical Journal 1988)
In 1989, the working party whose work had resulted in the publication of Aggregates was reconvened to revise, update and extend their report. Each chapter was reviewed by independent referees. The second and greatly improved edition, published in 1993 and reprinted in 1998, represented the distillation of a vast body of knowledge and experience held not only by the members of the working party, but also by many international experts, scientists and engineers who contributed as reviewers, referees and corresponding authors.
Owing to continued demand for this unique reference book, a group of aggregate specialists was convened in 1999 in order to review thoroughly and update Aggregates for this third edition.
Outline of contents: Introduction; Occurrences; Field investigations; Extraction; Processing; Classification; Testing; Aggregates for concrete; Aggregates for mortar; Unbound aggregates; Bituminous bound aggregates; Rail ballast; Filter media; Appendix: Aggregate properties; Glossary; Index.
Working Party Members and/or third edition Reviewers: Mr L. Collis (formerly Sandberg); Professor P. G. Fookes (Chairman; consulting engineering geologist), Mr R. A. Fox (formerly RMC Aggregates (UK) Ltd), Professor G. P. Hammersley (formerly Laing Technology Group, now BRE), Mr P. M. Harris (formerly BGS), Dr I. E. Higginbottom (formerly Wimpey Environmental Ltd), Mr J. Lay (RMC Aggregates (UK) Ltd), Dr G. Lees (formerly University of Birmingham), Mr D. I. Roberts (Land and Mineral Resource consultants), Mr A. R. Roeder (formerly British Cement Association), Dr I. Sims (Secretary; formerly Sandberg, now STATS Limited), Dr M. R. Smith (formerly Imperial College, now the Institute of Quarrying), Dr R. G. Thurrell (formerly BGS), Dr G. West (formerly TRL).