3. Field investigation of deposits
Published:January 01, 2001
The location of aggregate materials through the appraisal of geological and geotechnical information and the eventual selection of sites from which to extract them, requires the collation of data from many sources through desk studies, followed by field reconnaissances and the evaluation of prospects to the necessary level of geological assurance. After the identification of a possibly useful deposit, further, more specific investigations of its physical and mechanical characteristics may confirm that it is potentially useful as aggregate, i.e. it is a resource (McKelvey 1972), and that certain parts of it may be capable of being worked at a profit in prevailing market conditions and so may be regarded as a reserve (§3.7.2).
Whilst the main objective of this section is to outline methods for investigating and reporting on possible sources of aggregate, some attention is also given to operational, commercial, environmental and planning matters which, along with the geological factors, have to be considered by the engineer or geologist during the assessment of reserves for a quarrying prospect.
Thus, previously unreleased records of mining and quarrying operations, former aggregate workings or of investigations for them or for civil engineering works such as major road schemes, may be relevant, along with land use or soil surveys for agricultural purposes, old topographic maps and even local oral tradition from well sinkers, farmers and the local population (Chaplow 1975).
Although the assembly of published and unpublished data will draw primarily on the collation of available previous geological and geotechnical
Figures & Tables
Aggregates: Sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes
In 1985, the Geological Society published Aggregates as the first volume in its Engineering Geology Special Publication series. It met with immediate acclaim, being awarded the Brewis Trophy by SAGA in 1986.
“If your work involves the use of aggregates, buy this book and read no further; this volume will be an essential and valuable reference that you will use for many years.” (Canadian Geotechnical Journal 1988)
In 1989, the working party whose work had resulted in the publication of Aggregates was reconvened to revise, update and extend their report. Each chapter was reviewed by independent referees. The second and greatly improved edition, published in 1993 and reprinted in 1998, represented the distillation of a vast body of knowledge and experience held not only by the members of the working party, but also by many international experts, scientists and engineers who contributed as reviewers, referees and corresponding authors.
Owing to continued demand for this unique reference book, a group of aggregate specialists was convened in 1999 in order to review thoroughly and update Aggregates for this third edition.
Outline of contents: Introduction; Occurrences; Field investigations; Extraction; Processing; Classification; Testing; Aggregates for concrete; Aggregates for mortar; Unbound aggregates; Bituminous bound aggregates; Rail ballast; Filter media; Appendix: Aggregate properties; Glossary; Index.
Working Party Members and/or third edition Reviewers: Mr L. Collis (formerly Sandberg); Professor P. G. Fookes (Chairman; consulting engineering geologist), Mr R. A. Fox (formerly RMC Aggregates (UK) Ltd), Professor G. P. Hammersley (formerly Laing Technology Group, now BRE), Mr P. M. Harris (formerly BGS), Dr I. E. Higginbottom (formerly Wimpey Environmental Ltd), Mr J. Lay (RMC Aggregates (UK) Ltd), Dr G. Lees (formerly University of Birmingham), Mr D. I. Roberts (Land and Mineral Resource consultants), Mr A. R. Roeder (formerly British Cement Association), Dr I. Sims (Secretary; formerly Sandberg, now STATS Limited), Dr M. R. Smith (formerly Imperial College, now the Institute of Quarrying), Dr R. G. Thurrell (formerly BGS), Dr G. West (formerly TRL).